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Getting started with Prolog Language

Remarks

Implementations

  1. SWI-Prolog (free)
    • Implemented in
  2. SICStus (commercial)
  3. YAP (free)
  4. GNU Prolog (free)
  5. XSB (free)
  6. B (commercial)
  7. IF (commercial)
  8. Ciao (free)
  9. Minerva (commercial)
  10. ECLiPSe-CLP (free)
  11. Jekejeke Prolog (commercial)
  12. Prolog IV
  13. Yield Prolog (free)
  14. Visual Prolog (commercial)

append/3

append([], Bs, Bs).
append([A|As], Bs, [A|Cs]) :-
    append(As, Bs, Cs).

append/3 is one of the most well-known Prolog relations. It defines a relation between three arguments and is true if the third argument is a list that denotes the concatenation of the lists that are specified in the first and second arguments.

Notably, and as is typical for good Prolog code, append/3 can be used in several directions: It can be used to:

  • append two fully or partially instantiated lists:

      ?- A = [1, 2, 3], B=[4, 5, 6], append(A, B, Y)
      Output:
      A = [1, 2, 3],
      B = [4, 5, 6],
      Y = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].
    
  • check whether the relation is true for three fully instantiated lists:

      ?- A = [1, 2, 3], B = [4, 5], C = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], append(A, B, C)
      Output:
      false
    
  • generate all possible ways to append two lists to a given list:

      ?- append(A, B, [1, 2, 3, 4]).
      Output:
      A = [],
      B = [1, 2, 3, 4] ;
      A = [1],
      B = [2, 3, 4] ;
      A = [1, 2],
      B = [3, 4] ;
      A = [1, 2, 3],
      B = [4] ;
      A = [1, 2, 3, 4],
      B = [] ;
      false.
    

CLP(FD) Constraints

CLP(FD) constraints are provided by all serious Prolog implementations. They allow us to reason about integers in a pure way.

?- X #= 1 + 2.
X = 3.

?- 5 #= Y + 2.
Y = 3.

Database Programming

Prolog categorizes everything into:

  • Atoms - Any sequence of characters that do not start with an uppercase alphabet. Eg - a, b, okay
  • Numbers - There is no special syntax for numbers, no declaration is required. Eg 1, 22, 35.8
  • Variables - A string which starts with an uppercase character or underscore (_). Eg X, Y, Abc, AA
  • Complex Terms - They are made from a functor and a sequence of arguments. Name of a complex term is always an atom, while arguments can either be atoms or variables. Eg father(john,doe), relative(a), mother(X,Y).

A logic database contains a set of facts and rules.

A complex term with only atoms as arguments is called a fact, while a complex term with variables as arguments is called a rule.

Example of facts in Prolog:

father_child(fred, susan).
mother_child(hillary, joe).

Example of a rule in Prolog:

child_of(X,Y):-
    father_child(Y,X)
    ;
    mother_child(Y,X).

Note that the ; here is like the or operator in other languages.

Prolog is a declarative language and you can read this database as follows:

fred is the father of susan

hillary is the mother of joe.

For all X and Y, X is a child of Y if Y is a father of X or Y is a mother of X.

In fact, a finite set of facts and or rules constitutes as a logic program.

The use of such a program is demonstrated by doing queries. Queries lets you retrieve information from a logic program.

To load the database into the interpreter (assuming that you've saved the database into the directory you are running the interpreter in) you simply enter:

?- [nameofdatabase].

replacing the nameofdatabase with the actual file name (note that here we exclude the .pl extension to the filename).

Example of queries in the interpreter for the program above and the results:

?- child_of(susan,fred).
true

?- child_of(joe,hillary).
true

?- child_of(fred,susan).
false

?- child_of(susan,hillary).
false

?- child_of(susan,X).
X = fred

?- child_of(X,Y).
X = susan,
Y = fred ;
X = joe,
Y = hillary.

The queries above and their answers can be read as follows:

is susan a child of fred? - true

is joe a child of hillary? - true

is fred a child of susan? - false

is susan a child of hillary? - false

who is susan a child of? - fred

This is how we program logic in Prolog. A logic program is more formally: a set of axioms, or rules, defining relations (aka predicates) between objects. An alternative way of interpreting the database above in a more formal logic way is:

The relation father_child holds between fred and susan

The relation mother_child holds between hillary and joe

For all X and Y the relation child_of holds between X and Y if the relation father_child holds between Y and X, or the relation mother_child holds between Y and X.

Hello, World

Hello, World in the interactive interpreter

To print "Hello, World!" in the Prolog interpreter (here we are using swipl, the shell for SWI Prolog):

$ swipl
<...banner...>
?- write('Hello, World!'), nl.

?- is the system prompt: it indicates that the system is ready for the user to enter a sequence of goals (i.e. a query) that must be terminated with a . (full stop).

Here the query write('Hello World!'), nl has two goals:

  • write('Hello World!'): 'Hello World!' has to be displayed and (,)
  • a new line (nl) must follow.

write/1 (the /1 is used to indicate that the predicate takes one argument) and nl/0 are built-in predicates (the definition is provided in advance by the Prolog system). Built-in predicates provide facilities that cannot be obtained by pure Prolog definition or to save the programmer from having to define them.

The output:

Hello, World!

yes

ends with yes meaning that the query has succeeded. In some systems true is printed instead of yes.

Hello, World from a file

Open a new file called hello_world.pl and insert the following text:

:- initialization hello_world, halt.

hello_world :-
    write('Hello, World!'), nl.

The initialization directive specifies that the goal hello_world, halt should be called when the file is loaded. halt exits the program.

This file can then be executed by your Prolog executable. The exact flags depend on the Prolog system. If you are using SWI Prolog:

$ swipl -q -l hello_world.pl 

This will produce output Hello, World!. The -q flag suppresses the banner that usually displays when you call run swipl. The -l specifies a file to load.

Installation or Setup

SWI-Prolog

Windows and Mac:

  • Download SWI-Prolog at the official website
  • Simply install by following the installer instructions.

Linux (PPA):

  • Add the PPA ppa:swi-prolog/stable to your system’s software sources (developers may choose for ppa:swi-prolog/devel) :

    • Open a terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and type: sudo add-apt-repository ppa:swi-prolog/stable

    • Afterwards, update the package information: sudo apt-get update

  • Now install SWI-Prolog through the package manager: sudo apt-get install swi-prolog

  • You can now start SWI-Prolog through the command-line with command swipl