C++ tipi atomici


Esempio

Ogni istanza e specializzazione completa del modello std::atomic definisce un tipo atomico. Se un thread scrive su un oggetto atomico mentre un altro thread legge da esso, il comportamento è ben definito (vedi il modello di memoria per i dettagli sulle gare di dati)

Inoltre, gli accessi agli oggetti atomici possono stabilire la sincronizzazione tra thread e ordinare accessi di memoria non atomici come specificato da std::memory_order .

std :: atomic può essere istanziato con qualsiasi TriviallyCopyable type T. std::atomic non è né copiabile né mobile.

La libreria standard fornisce le specializzazioni del modello std :: atomic per i seguenti tipi:

  1. Viene definita una specializzazione completa per il tipo bool e il suo nome typedef che viene trattato come std::atomic<T> non specializzato, tranne che ha un layout standard, un costruttore banale di default, distruttori banali e supporta la sintassi di inizializzazione aggregata:
Nome typedef Specializzazione completa
std::atomic_bool std::atomic<bool>

2) Specializzazioni complete e typedef per tipi interi, come segue:

Nome typedef Specializzazione completa
std::atomic_char std::atomic<char>
std::atomic_char std::atomic<char>
std::atomic_schar std::atomic<signed char>
std::atomic_uchar std::atomic<unsigned char>
std::atomic_short std::atomic<short>
std::atomic_ushort std::atomic<unsigned short>
std::atomic_int std::atomic<int>
std::atomic_uint std::atomic<unsigned int>
std::atomic_long std::atomic<long>
std::atomic_ulong std::atomic<unsigned long>
std::atomic_llong std::atomic<long long>
std::atomic_ullong std::atomic<unsigned long long>
std::atomic_char16_t std::atomic<char16_t>
std::atomic_char32_t std::atomic<char32_t>
std::atomic_wchar_t std::atomic<wchar_t>
std::atomic_int8_t std::atomic<std::int8_t>
std::atomic_uint8_t std::atomic<std::uint8_t>
std::atomic_int16_t std::atomic<std::int16_t>
std::atomic_uint16_t std::atomic<std::uint16_t>
std::atomic_int32_t std::atomic<std::int32_t>
std::atomic_uint32_t std::atomic<std::uint32_t>
std::atomic_int64_t std::atomic<std::int64_t>
std::atomic_uint64_t std::atomic<std::uint64_t>
std::atomic_int_least8_t std::atomic<std::int_least8_t>
std::atomic_uint_least8_t std::atomic<std::uint_least8_t>
std::atomic_int_least16_t std::atomic<std::int_least16_t>
std::atomic_uint_least16_t std::atomic<std::uint_least16_t>
std::atomic_int_least32_t std::atomic<std::int_least32_t>
std::atomic_uint_least32_t std::atomic<std::uint_least32_t>
std::atomic_int_least64_t std::atomic<std::int_least64_t>
std::atomic_uint_least64_t std::atomic<std::uint_least64_t>
std::atomic_int_fast8_t std::atomic<std::int_fast8_t>
std::atomic_uint_fast8_t std::atomic<std::uint_fast8_t>
std::atomic_int_fast16_t std::atomic<std::int_fast16_t>
std::atomic_uint_fast16_t std::atomic<std::uint_fast16_t>
std::atomic_int_fast32_t std::atomic<std::int_fast32_t>
std::atomic_uint_fast32_t std::atomic<std::uint_fast32_t>
std::atomic_int_fast64_t std::atomic<std::int_fast64_t>
std::atomic_uint_fast64_t std::atomic<std::uint_fast64_t>
std::atomic_intptr_t std::atomic<std::intptr_t>
std::atomic_uintptr_t std::atomic<std::uintptr_t>
std::atomic_size_t std::atomic<std::size_t>
std::atomic_ptrdiff_t std::atomic<std::ptrdiff_t>
std::atomic_intmax_t std::atomic<std::intmax_t>
std::atomic_uintmax_t std::atomic<std::uintmax_t>

Semplice esempio di utilizzo di std :: atomic_int

#include <iostream>       // std::cout
#include <atomic>         // std::atomic, std::memory_order_relaxed
#include <thread>         // std::thread

std::atomic_int foo (0);

void set_foo(int x) {
  foo.store(x,std::memory_order_relaxed);     // set value atomically
}

void print_foo() {
  int x;
  do {
    x = foo.load(std::memory_order_relaxed);  // get value atomically
  } while (x==0);
  std::cout << "foo: " << x << '\n';
}

int main ()
{
  std::thread first (print_foo);
  std::thread second (set_foo,10);
  first.join();
  //second.join();
  return 0;
}
//output: foo: 10