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Version 4.3

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OpenGL 4.3 (or ARB_separate_attrib_format) adds an alternative way of specifying the vertex data, which creates a separation between the format of the data bound for an attribute and the buffer object source that provides the data. So instead of having a VAO per mesh, you may have a VAO per vertex format.

Each attribute is associated with a vertex format and a binding point. The vertex format consists of the type, component count, whether it is normalized, and the relative offset from the start of the data to that particular vertex. The binding point specifies which buffer an attribute takes its data from. By separating the two, you can bind buffers without respecifying any vertex formats. You can also change the buffer that provides data to multiple attributes with a single bind call.

//accessible constant declarations
constexpr int vertexBindingPoint = 0;
constexpr int texBindingPoint = 1;// free to choose, must be less than the GL_MAX_VERTEX_ATTRIB_BINDINGS limit

//during initialization

glVertexAttribFormat(posAttrLoc, 3, GL_FLOAT, false, offsetof(Vertex, pos));
// set the details of a single attribute
glVertexAttribBinding(posAttrLoc, vertexBindingPoint);
// which buffer binding point it is attached to

glVertexAttribFormat(normalAttrLoc, 3, GL_FLOAT, false, offsetof(Vertex, normal));
glVertexAttribBinding(normalAttrLoc, vertexBindingPoint);

glVertexAttribFormat(texAttrLoc, 2, GL_FLOAT, false, offsetof(Texture, tex));
glVertexAttribBinding(texAttrLoc, texBindingPoint);

Then during draw you keep the vao bound and only change the buffer bindings.

void drawMesh(Mesh[] mesh){

    foreach(mesh in meshes){
        glBindVertexBuffer(vertexBindingPoint, mesh.vbo, mesh.vboOffset, sizeof(Vertex));
        glBindVertexBuffer(texBindingPoint, mesh.texVbo, mesh.texVboOffset, sizeof(Texture));
        // bind the buffers to the binding point

        glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, mesh.ebo);

        glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, mesh.vertexCount, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, mesh.indexOffset);