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Getting started with SQL

Remarks

SQL is Structured Query Language used to manage data in a relational database system. Different vendors have improved upon the language and have variety of flavors for the language.

NB: This tag refers explicitly to the ISO/ANSI SQL standard; not to any specific implementation of that standard.

Versions

VersionShort NameStandardRelease Date
1986SQL-86ANSI X3.135-1986, ISO 9075:19871986-01-01
1989SQL-89ANSI X3.135-1989, ISO/IEC 9075:19891989-01-01
1992SQL-92ISO/IEC 9075:19921992-01-01
1999SQL:1999ISO/IEC 9075:19991999-12-16
2003SQL:2003ISO/IEC 9075:20032003-12-15
2006SQL:2006ISO/IEC 9075:20062006-06-01
2008SQL:2008ISO/IEC 9075:20082008-07-15
2011SQL:2011ISO/IEC 9075:20112011-12-15
2016SQL:2016ISO/IEC 9075:20162016-12-01

Overview

Structured Query Language (SQL) is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). SQL-like languages can also be used in Relational Data Stream Management Systems (RDSMS), or in "not-only SQL" (NoSQL) databases.

SQL comprises of 3 major sub-languages:

  1. Data Definition Language (DDL): to create and modify the structure of the database;
  2. Data Manipulation Language (DML): to perform Read, Insert, Update and Delete operations on the data of the database;
  3. Data Control Language (DCL): to control the access of the data stored in the database.

SQL article on Wikipedia

The core DML operations are Create, Read, Update and Delete (CRUD for short) which are performed by the statements INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE and DELETE.
There is also a (recently added) MERGE statement which can perform all 3 write operations (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE).

CRUD article on Wikipedia


Many SQL databases are implemented as client/server systems; the term "SQL server" describes such a database.
At the same time, Microsoft makes a database that is named "SQL Server". While that database speaks a dialect of SQL, information specific to that database is not on topic in this tag but belongs into the SQL Server documentation.