Specific to Windows System and android Phone:
Basically after connecting USB cable PC detects the Android Device and it will automatically search for the required Drivers for that Android Device. If that drivers are not found then you have to install manually.
First install Android SDK in your PC(Windows)
After installing in Android SDK tools Right click on the SDK Manager and select "Run as Administrator"
In the SDK Manager select "Extras->Google USB Driver". Enable the checkbox and click "Install 1 Package"
When the Google USB driver is installed, plug in your device. Warning: The driver won't install automatically. We will do it manually in the next steps.
Open the System Properties dialog (press Win+Break on the keyboard or locate "Computer" in Start Menu, right-click on it and select "Properties".
Click on the "Device Manager" link.
In the Device Manager locate your Android device. Then right-click on it and select "Update Driver Software".
Select "Browse my computer for driver software".
Select "Let me pick from a list of device drivers on my computer".
Select "Show All Devices".
Press the "Have Disk" button.
Enter the path to the Google USB driver. Normally it is located in the following directory:C:\Program Files (x86)\Android\android-sdk\extras\google\usb_driver
Select "Android ADB Interface" from the list of device types.
Confirm the installation of the driver by pressing "Yes".
Confirm the installation again by pressing "Install".
When the installation is done, press "Close".