Tutorial by Examples



Open Visual Studio In the toolbar, go to File → New Project Select the Console Application project type Open the file Program.cs in the Solution Explorer Add the following code to Main(): public class Program { public static void Main() { // Prints a message to the conso...
using System; class Program { // The Main() function is the first function to be executed in a program static void Main() { // Write the string "Hello World to the standard out Console.WriteLine("Hello World"); } } Console.WriteLine has se...
string fullOrRelativePath = "testfile.txt"; string fileData; using (var reader = new StreamReader(fullOrRelativePath)) { fileData = reader.ReadToEnd(); } Note that this StreamReader constructor overload does some auto encoding detection, which may or may not conform to the ...
C# allows user-defined types to overload operators by defining static member functions using the operator keyword. The following example illustrates an implementation of the + operator. If we have a Complex class which represents a complex number: public struct Complex { public double Real ...
Extension methods were introduced in C# 3.0. Extension methods extend and add behavior to existing types without creating a new derived type, recompiling, or otherwise modifying the original type. They are especially helpful when you cannot modify the source of a type you are looking to enhance. Ex...
Extension methods can also be used like ordinary static class methods. This way of calling an extension method is more verbose, but is necessary in some cases. static class StringExtensions { public static string Shorten(this string text, int length) { return text.Substring(0, ...
Initialize a collection type with values: var stringList = new List<string> { "foo", "bar", }; Collection initializers are syntactic sugar for Add() calls. Above code is equivalent to: var temp = new List<string>(); temp.Add("foo"); temp.A...
Equals Checks whether the supplied operands (arguments) are equal "a" == "b" // Returns false. "a" == "a" // Returns true. 1 == 0 // Returns false. 1 == 1 // Returns true. false == true // Returns false. false == false // Return...
Full expressions can also be used in interpolated strings. var StrWithMathExpression = $"1 + 2 = {1 + 2}"; // -> "1 + 2 = 3" string world = "world"; var StrWithFunctionCall = $"Hello, {world.ToUpper()}!"; // -> "Hello, WORLD!" Live Demo...
var date = new DateTime(2015, 11, 11); var str = $"It's {date:MMMM d, yyyy}, make a wish!"; System.Console.WriteLine(str); You can also use the DateTime.ToString method to format the DateTime object. This will produce the same output as the code above. var date = new DateTime(2015, 1...
var multiLine = @"This is a multiline paragraph"; Output: This is a multiline paragraph Live Demo on .NET Fiddle Multi-line strings that contain double-quotes can also be escaped just as they were on a single line, because they are verbatim strings. var multilineWithDoubleQ...
Double Quotes inside verbatim strings can be escaped by using 2 sequential double quotes "" to represent one double quote " in the resulting string. var str = @"""I don't think so,"" he said."; Console.WriteLine(str); Output: "I don't think s...
Verbatim strings can be combined with the new String interpolation features found in C#6. Console.WriteLine($@"Testing \n 1 2 {5 - 2} New line"); Output: Testing \n 1 2 3 New line Live Demo on .NET Fiddle As expected from a verbatim string, the backslashes are ignored as escap...
The nameof operator returns the name of a code element as a string. This is useful when throwing exceptions related to method arguments and also when implementing INotifyPropertyChanged. public string SayHello(string greeted) { if (greeted == null) throw new ArgumentNullException(nam...
Expression-bodied function members allow the use of lambda expressions as member bodies. For simple members, it can result in cleaner and more readable code. Expression-bodied functions can be used for properties, indexers, methods, and operators. Properties public decimal TotalPrice => Base...
Exception filters give developers the ability to add a condition (in the form of a boolean expression) to a catch block, allowing the catch to execute only if the condition evaluates to true. Exception filters allow the propagation of debug information in the original exception, where as using an...
Introduction Properties can be initialized with the = operator after the closing }. The Coordinate class below shows the available options for initializing a property: 6.0 public class Coordinate { public int X { get; set; } = 34; // get or set auto-property with initializer public ...
Index initializers make it possible to create and initialize objects with indexes at the same time. This makes initializing Dictionaries very easy: var dict = new Dictionary<string, int>() { ["foo"] = 34, ["bar"] = 42 }; Any object that has an indexed gette...
String interpolation allows the developer to combine variables and text to form a string. Basic Example Two int variables are created: foo and bar. int foo = 34; int bar = 42; string resultString = $"The foo is {foo}, and the bar is {bar}."; Console.WriteLine(resultString); ...
It is possible to use await expression to apply await operator to Tasks or Task(Of TResult) in the catch and finally blocks in C#6. It was not possible to use the await expression in the catch and finally blocks in earlier versions due to compiler limitations. C#6 makes awaiting async tasks a lot e...

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