# Tutorial by Examples

## The String Concatenation Operator (+)

The + symbol can mean three distinct operators in Java: If there is no operand before the +, then it is the unary Plus operator. If there are two operands, and they are both numeric. then it is the binary Addition operator. If there are two operands, and at least one of them is a String, then i...

## The Arithmetic Operators (+, -, *, /, %)

The Java language provides 7 operators that perform arithmetic on integer and floating point values. There are two + operators: The binary addition operator adds one number to another one. (There is also a binary + operator that performs string concatenation. That is described in a separate e...

## The Equality Operators (==, !=)

The == and != operators are binary operators that evaluate to true or false depending on whether the operands are equal. The == operator gives true if the operands are equal and false otherwise. The != operator gives false if the operands are equal and true otherwise. These operators can be used ...

## The Increment/Decrement Operators (++/--)

Variables can be incremented or decremented by 1 using the ++ and -- operators, respectively. When the ++ and -- operators follow variables, they are called post-increment and post-decrement respectively. int a = 10; a++; // a now equals 11 a--; // a now equals 10 again When the ++ and -- ope...

## The Conditional Operator (? :)

Syntax {condition-to-evaluate} ? {statement-executed-on-true} : {statement-executed-on-false} As shown in the syntax, the Conditional Operator (also known as the Ternary Operator1) uses the ? (question mark) and : (colon) characters to enable a conditional expression of two possible outcomes. It c...

## The Bitwise and Logical Operators (~, &, |, ^)

The Java language provides 4 operators that perform bitwise or logical operations on integer or boolean operands. The complement (~) operator is a unary operator that performs a bitwise or logical inversion of the bits of one operand; see JLS 15.15.5.. The AND (&amp;) operator is a binary operat...

## The Instanceof Operator

This operator checks whether the object is of a particular class/interface type. instanceof operator is written as: ( Object reference variable ) instanceof (class/interface type) Example: public class Test { public static void main(String args[]){ String name = &quot;Buyya&quot;;...

## The Assignment Operators (=, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, <<=, >>= , >>>=, &=, |= and ^=)

The left hand operand for these operators must be a either a non-final variable or an element of an array. The right hand operand must be assignment compatible with the left hand operand. This means that either the types must be the same, or the right operand type must be convertible to the left o...

## The conditional-and and conditional-or Operators ( && and || )

Java provides a conditional-and and a conditional-or operator, that both take one or two operands of type boolean and produce a boolean result. These are: &amp;&amp; - the conditional-AND operator, || - the conditional-OR operators. The evaluation of &lt;left-expr&gt; &amp;&amp; &lt;righ...

## The Shift Operators (<<, >> and >>>)

The Java language provides three operator for performing bitwise shifting on 32 and 64 bit integer values. These are all binary operators with the first operand being the value to be shifted, and the second operand saying how far to shift. The &lt;&lt; or left shift operator shifts the value g...

## The Lambda operator ( -> )

From Java 8 onwards, the Lambda operator ( -&gt; ) is the operator used to introduce a Lambda Expression. There are two common syntaxes, as illustrated by these examples: Java SE 8 a -&gt; a + 1 // a lambda that adds one to its argument a -&gt; { return a + 1; } // an equivalen...

## The Relational Operators (<, <=, >, >=)

The operators &lt;, &lt;=, &gt; and &gt;= are binary operators for comparing numeric types. The meaning of the operators is as you would expect. For example, if a and b are declared as any of byte, short, char, int, long, float, double or the corresponding boxed types: - `a &lt; b` tests if the v...

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