Tutorial by Examples



Python is a widely used high-level programming language for general-purpose programming, created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. Python features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative, f...
To create a variable in Python, all you need to do is specify the variable name, and then assign a value to it. <variable name> = <value> Python uses = to assign values to variables. There's no need to declare a variable in advance (or to assign a data type to it), assigning a value ...
Interactive input To get input from the user, use the input function (note: in Python 2.x, the function is called raw_input instead, although Python 2.x has its own version of input that is completely different): Python 2.x2.3 name = raw_input("What is your name? ") # Out: What is your...
IDLE is Python’s Integrated Development and Learning Environment and is an alternative to the command line. As the name may imply, IDLE is very useful for developing new code or learning python. On Windows this comes with the Python interpreter, but in other operating systems you may need to install...
Built-in Types Booleans bool: A boolean value of either True or False. Logical operations like and, or, not can be performed on booleans. x or y # if x is False then y otherwise x x and y # if x is False then x otherwise y not x # if x is True then False, otherwise True In Python 2...
A module is a file containing Python definitions and statements. Function is a piece of code which execute some logic. >>> pow(2,3) #8 To check the built in function in python we can use dir(). If called without an argument, return the names in the current scope. Else, return an alph...
Python uses indentation to define control and loop constructs. This contributes to Python's readability, however, it requires the programmer to pay close attention to the use of whitespace. Thus, editor miscalibration could result in code that behaves in unexpected ways. Python uses the colon symbo...
There are a number of collection types in Python. While types such as int and str hold a single value, collection types hold multiple values. Lists The list type is probably the most commonly used collection type in Python. Despite its name, a list is more like an array in other languages, mostl...
Python has several functions built into the interpreter. If you want to get information of keywords, built-in functions, modules or topics open a Python console and enter: >>> help() You will receive information by entering keywords directly: >>> help(help) or within the u...
A module is an importable file containing definitions and statements. A module can be created by creating a .py file. # hello.py def say_hello(): print("Hello!") Functions in a module can be used by importing the module. For modules that you have made, they will need to be in t...
There are two functions that can be used to obtain a readable representation of an object. repr(x) calls x.__repr__(): a representation of x. eval will usually convert the result of this function back to the original object. str(x) calls x.__str__(): a human-readable string that describes the obje...
pip is your friend when you need to install any package from the plethora of choices available at the python package index (PyPI). pip is already installed if you're using Python 2 >= 2.7.9 or Python 3 >= 3.4 downloaded from python.org. For computers running Linux or another *nix with a native...
Note: Following instructions are written for Python 2.7 (unless specified): instructions for Python 3.x are similar. WINDOWS First, download the latest version of Python 2.7 from the official Website (https://www.python.org/downloads/). Version is provided as an MSI package. To install it manu...

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