You can technically access the Google Analytics APIs using any programing language that can handle a HTTP Post or HTTP Get request.
That being said, Google has also created a number of official standard client libraries to help you with this. Using a standard client library for your chosen programming language can be much easier than coding it from the ground up yourself.
OFFICAL Client libraries with Google Analytics API support:
- Google APIs PHP Client library - GitHub
- Google APIs .Net Client library - GitHub NuGet
- Google APIs Python Client library - GitHub
- Google APIs Java Client library - link
- Google APIs Objective-C library - GitHub
There are more libraries here.