In order to be able to directly deploy web project changes to an Web Server, the following steps must be followed. If target server has Internet access, the process is quite simple, as Microsoft has a Web Platform package to do almost everything that is needed.
Make sure that
C:\Program Files\IIS does not contain older version of Microsoft Web Deploy. If it contains, uninstall it (them) from Add/remove programs and remove any files left
Install Web platform installer (WPI) from here
Run WPI, search for Web Deploy 3.6 for Hosting Servers and install everything it contains. It will take care to install all the required dependencies (e.g. for SQL deployment) and also make IIS ready to be configured for Web deployments
IIS must be configured in order to allow web deployments on one or more of its Web sites.
Rights: access web site -> IIS manager permissions and configure which users are allowed to publish. NOTE: in some particular configuration, trying to select a user might lead to IIS manager crashing. In these rare cases, just enter username manually - e.g. domain\username
Web deploy Publishing configuration - Right click on Web site -> Deploy... -> Configure Web Deploy Publishing
NOTE: In order to for publishing to work, selected port (default is 8172) must be opened (it might be blocked in some companies).
Full installation details (step by step with relevant pictures) can be found here