ls command has several options that can be used together to show more information.
l option shows the file permissions, size, and last modified date. So if the root directory contained a dir called
test and a file
someFile the command:
user@linux-computer:~$ ls -l
Would output something like
-rw-r--r-- 1 user users 70 Jul 22 13:36 someFile.txt drwxrwxrwx 2 user users 4096 Jul 21 07:18 test
The permissions are in format of
drwxrwxrwx. The first character represents the file type
d if it's a directory
- otherwise. The next three
rwx are the permissions the user has over the file, the next three are the permissions the group has over the file, and the last three are the permissions everyone else has over the file.
rwx stands for if a file can be read, the
w represents if the file can be modified, and the
x stands for if the file can be executed. If any permission isn't granted a
- will be in place of
So from above
user can read and modify
someFile.txt but the group has only read-only rights.
To change rights you can use the
chmod ### fileName command if you have sudo rights.
r is represented by a value of 4,
w is represented by 2, and
x is represented by a 1.
So if only you want to be able to modify the contents to the
Owner rwx = 4+2+1 = 7 Group r-x = 4+0+1 = 5 Other r-x = 4+0+1 = 5
So the whole command is
chmod 755 test
Now doing a
ls -l would show something like
drwxr-xr-x 2 user users 4096 Jul 21 07:20 test
Used in conjunction with the
l option the
h option shows file sizes that are human readable. Running
user@linux-computer:~$ ls -lh
total 4166 -rw-r--r-- 1 user users 70 Jul 22 13:36 someFile.txt drwxrwxrwx 2 user users 4.0K Jul 21 07:18 test
To view hidden files use the
a option. For example
user@linux-computer:~$ ls -a
.profile someFile.txt test
Total Directory Size
To view the size of the current directory use the
s option (the
h option can also be used to make the size more readable).
user@linux-computer:~$ ls -s
total 4166 someFile.txt test
test directory had a file
anotherFile and you wanted to see it from the root folder, you could use the
R option which would list the recursive tree.
user@linux-computer:~$ ls -R
.: someFile.txt test ./test: anotherFile