glslAan de slag met glsl


Opmerkingen

Deze sectie geeft een overzicht van wat glsl is en waarom een ontwikkelaar het misschien wil gebruiken.

Het moet ook alle grote onderwerpen binnen glsl vermelden en naar de gerelateerde onderwerpen linken. Aangezien de documentatie voor glsl nieuw is, moet u mogelijk eerste versies van die gerelateerde onderwerpen maken.

versies

OpenGL Shading Language

GLSL-versie OpenGL-versie Shader Preprocessor Publicatiedatum
1.10 2.0 #versie 110 2004-09-07
1.20 2.1 #versie 120 2006-07-02
1.30 3.0 #versie 130 2008-08-11
1.40 3.1 #versie 140 2009-03-24
1.50 3.2 #versie 150 2009-08-03
3.30 3.3 #versie 330 2010-02-12
4.00 4.0 #versie 400 2010-03-11
4.10 4.1 #versie 410 2010-07-26
4.20 4.2 #versie 420 2011-08-08
4.30 4.3 #versie 430 2012-08-06
4.40 4.4 #versie 440 2013/07/22
4.50 4.5 #versie 450 2014/08/11

OpenGL ES Shading Language

GLSL ES-versie OpenGL ES-versie Shader Preprocessor Publicatiedatum
1,00 ES 2.0 #versie 100 2007-03-05
3.00 ES 3.0 #version 300 es 2012-08-06
3.10 ES 3.1 #version 310 es 2014/03/17
3.20 ES 3.2 #version 320 es 2015/08/10

De geometrie wijzigen met tessellation shaders in OGL 4.0 GLSL

Een eenvoudig OGL 4.0 GLSL-arceringprogramma dat laat zien dat laat zien hoe details met tessellation-arcering aan de geometrie kunnen worden toegevoegd. Het programma wordt uitgevoerd met een python-script. Om het script uit te voeren, moeten PyOpenGL en NumPy zijn geïnstalleerd.

Het basisnetwerk in dit voorbeeld is een icosaëder die uit 20 driehoeken bestaat. De tessellation control shader definieert hoe elke driehoek is verdeeld in een set van vele kleine onderdelen. Bij het tesselleren van een driehoek zijn de gegenereerde gegevens barycentrische coördinaten op basis van de oorspronkelijke driehoek. De tessellation evaluatie-arcering genereert nieuwe geometrie van de op deze manier verkregen gegevens. In dit voorbeeld krijgt elke driehoek een piek in het midden, die naar buiten stijgt vanuit het midden van de icosader. Op deze manier wordt een veel complexere geometrie gegenereerd dan de originele icosaëder.

Vertex shader

tess.vert

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inNV;

out TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelViewMat44;
uniform mat3 u_normalMat33;

void main()
{
    vec4 viewPos = u_modelViewMat44 * vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
    
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    outData.nv  = u_normalMat33 * normalize( inNV );
    
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
}
 

Tessellation control shader

tess.tctrl

#version 400

layout( vertices=3 ) out;

in TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
} inData[];

out TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
} outData[];

void main()
{
    outData[gl_InvocationID].pos = inData[gl_InvocationID].pos;
    outData[gl_InvocationID].nv  = inData[gl_InvocationID].nv;
  
    if ( gl_InvocationID == 0 )
    {
        gl_TessLevelOuter[0] = 10.0;
        gl_TessLevelOuter[1] = 10.0;
        gl_TessLevelOuter[2] = 10.0;
        gl_TessLevelInner[0] = 10.0;
    }
}
 

Tessellation evaluatie arcering

tess.teval

#version 400

layout(triangles, equal_spacing, ccw) in;

in TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
} inData[];

out TTessData
{
    vec3  pos;
    vec3  nv;
    float height;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;

void main()
{
    float sideLen[3] = float[3]
    (
        length( inData[1].pos - inData[0].pos ),
        length( inData[2].pos - inData[1].pos ),
        length( inData[0].pos - inData[2].pos )
    );
    float s = ( sideLen[0] + sideLen[1] + sideLen[2] ) / 2.0;
    float rad = sqrt( (s - sideLen[0]) * (s - sideLen[1]) * (s - sideLen[2]) / s );

    vec3 cpt = ( inData[0].pos + inData[1].pos + inData[2].pos ) / 3.0;
    vec3 pos = inData[0].pos * gl_TessCoord.x + inData[1].pos * gl_TessCoord.y + inData[2].pos * gl_TessCoord.z;
    vec3 nv  = normalize( inData[0].nv * gl_TessCoord.x + inData[1].nv * gl_TessCoord.y + inData[2].nv * gl_TessCoord.z );

    float cptDist      = length( cpt - pos );
    float sizeRelation = 1.0 - min( rad, cptDist ) / rad; 
    float height       = pow( sizeRelation, 2.0 );

    outData.pos    = pos + nv * height * rad;
    outData.nv     = mix( nv, normalize( pos - cpt ), height );
    outData.height = height;

    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * vec4( outData.pos, 1.0 );
}
 

Fragment shader

tess.frag

#version 400

in TTessData
{
    vec3  pos;
    vec3  nv;
    float height;
} inData;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform sampler2D u_texture;

uniform UB_material
{
    float u_roughness;
    float u_fresnel0;
    vec4  u_color;
    vec4  u_specularTint;
};

struct TLightSource
{
    vec4 ambient;
    vec4 diffuse;
    vec4 specular;
    vec4 dir;
};

uniform UB_lightSource
{
    TLightSource u_lightSource;
};

float Fresnel_Schlick( in float theta );
vec3 LightModel( in vec3 esPt, in vec3 esPtNV, in vec3 col, in vec4 specularTint, in float roughness, in float fresnel0 );

void main()
{
    vec3 col = mix( u_color.rgb, vec3( 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 ), inData.height );
    vec3 lightCol = LightModel( inData.pos, inData.nv, col, u_specularTint, u_roughness, u_fresnel0 );
    fragColor = vec4( clamp( lightCol, 0.0, 1.0 ), 1.0 );
}

float Fresnel_Schlick( in float theta )
{
    float m = clamp( 1.0 - theta, 0.0, 1.0 );
    float m2 = m * m;
    return m2 * m2 * m; // pow( m, 5.0 )
}

vec3 LightModel( in vec3 esPt, in vec3 esPtNV, in vec3 col, in vec4 specularTint, in float roughness, in float fresnel0 )
{
  vec3  esVLight      = normalize( -u_lightSource.dir.xyz );
  vec3  esVEye        = normalize( -esPt );
  vec3  halfVector    = normalize( esVEye + esVLight );
  float HdotL         = dot( halfVector, esVLight );
  float NdotL         = dot( esPtNV, esVLight );
  float NdotV         = dot( esPtNV, esVEye );
  float NdotH         = dot( esPtNV, halfVector );
  float NdotH2        = NdotH * NdotH;
  float NdotL_clamped = max( NdotL, 0.0 );
  float NdotV_clamped = max( NdotV, 0.0 );
  float m2            = roughness * roughness;
  
  // Lambertian diffuse
  float k_diffuse = NdotL_clamped;
  // Schlick approximation
  float fresnel = fresnel0 + ( 1.0 - fresnel0 ) * Fresnel_Schlick( HdotL );
  // Beckmann distribution
  float distribution = max( 0.0, exp( ( NdotH2 - 1.0 ) / ( m2 * NdotH2 ) ) / ( 3.14159265 * m2 * NdotH2 * NdotH2 ) );
  // Torrance-Sparrow geometric term
  float geometric_att = min( 1.0, min( 2.0 * NdotH * NdotV_clamped / HdotL, 2.0 * NdotH * NdotL_clamped / HdotL ) );
  // Microfacet bidirectional reflectance distribution function 
  float k_specular = fresnel * distribution * geometric_att / ( 4.0 * NdotL_clamped * NdotV_clamped );
  
  vec3 lightColor = col.rgb * u_lightSource.ambient.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_diffuse ) * col.rgb * u_lightSource.diffuse.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_specular ) * mix( col.rgb, specularTint.rgb, specularTint.a ) * u_lightSource.specular.rgb;
  return lightColor;
}
 

Python-script

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

sin120 = 0.8660254
rotateCamera = False

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    dist = 3.0
    currentTime = time()
    comeraRotAng = CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ) 
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = Perspective(90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    viewMat = Translate( viewMat, np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -12.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, comeraRotAng if rotateCamera else 0.0, 0.0] )

    # set up light source
    lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.dir', TransformVec4([-1.0, -1.0, -5.0, 0.0], viewMat) )
    
    # set up icosahedron model matrix
    icoModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: icoModelMat = RotateY( icoModelMat, comeraRotAng ) 
    icoModelMat = Scale( icoModelMat, np.repeat( 5, 3 ) )
    icoModelMat = RotateY( icoModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 17.0 ) )
    icoModelMat = RotateX( icoModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 13.0 ) )

    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    lightSourceBuffer.BindToTarget()
    
    # draw icosahedron
    icoMaterialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    modelViewMat = Multiply(viewMat, icoModelMat)
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelViewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelViewMat )
    glUniformMatrix3fv( normalMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, ToMat33(modelViewMat) )
    glBindVertexArray( icoVAObj )
    glPatchParameteri( GL_PATCH_VERTICES, 3 )
    glDrawArrays( GL_PATCHES, 0, len(icoPosData) )
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER: 'geometry', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# link shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

# representation of a uniform block
class UniformBlock:
     def __init__(self, shaderProg, name):
        self.shaderProg = shaderProg 
        self.name = name
     def Link(self, bindingPoint):
        self.bindingPoint = bindingPoint
        self.noOfUniforms = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS)
        self.maxUniformNameLen = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_MAX_LENGTH)
        self.index = glGetUniformBlockIndex(self.shaderProg, self.name)
        intData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS, intData)
        self.count = intData[0]
        self.indices = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_INDICES, self.indices)
        self.offsets = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformsiv(self.shaderProg, self.count, self.indices, GL_UNIFORM_OFFSET, self.offsets)
        strLengthData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        arraysizeData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        typeData = np.zeros(1, dtype='uint32')
        nameData = np.chararray(self.maxUniformNameLen+1)
        self.namemap = {}
        self.dataSize = 0 
        for inx in range(0, len(self.indices)):
            glGetActiveUniform( self.shaderProg, self.indices[inx], self.maxUniformNameLen, strLengthData, arraysizeData,     typeData, nameData.data )
            name = nameData.tostring()[:strLengthData[0]]
            self.namemap[name] = inx
            self.dataSize = max(self.dataSize, self.offsets[inx] + arraysizeData * 16) 
        glUniformBlockBinding(self.shaderProg, self.index, self.bindingPoint)
        print('\nuniform block %s size:%4d' % (self.name, self.dataSize))
        for uName in self.namemap:
            print( '    %-40s index:%2d    offset:%4d' % (uName, self.indices[self.namemap[uName]], self.offsets[self.namemap    [uName]]) ) 

# representation of a uniform block buffer
class UniformBlockBuffer:
    def __init__(self, ub):
        self.namemap = ub.namemap
        self.offsets = ub.offsets
        self.bindingPoint = ub.bindingPoint
        self.object = glGenBuffers(1)
        self.dataSize = ub.dataSize
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.zeros(self.dataSize//4, dtype='float32')
        glBufferData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.dataSize, dataArray, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW)
    def BindToTarget(self):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        glBindBufferBase(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.bindingPoint, self.object)
    def BindDataFloat(self, name, dataArr):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.array(dataArr, dtype='float32')
        glBufferSubData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.offsets[self.namemap[name]], len(dataArr)*4, dataArray)

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def Multiply(matA, matB):
    matC = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        for i1 in range(0, 4):
            matC[i0,i1] = matB[i0,0] * matA[0,i1] + matB[i0,1] * matA[1,i1] + matB[i0,2] * matA[2,i1] + matB[i0,3] * matA[3,i1]        
    return matC

def ToMat33(mat44):
    mat33 = np.matrix(np.identity(3), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 3): mat33[i0, i1] = mat44[i0, i1]
    return mat33

def TransformVec4(vecA,mat44):
    vecB = np.zeros(4, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        vecB[i0] = vecA[0] * mat44[0,i0] + vecA[1] * mat44[1,i0] + vecA[2] * mat44[2,i0]  + vecA[3] * mat44[3,i0]
    return vecB

def Perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

def AddToBuffer( buffer, data, count=1 ): 
    for inx_c in range(0, count):
        for inx_s in range(0, len(data)): buffer.append( data[inx_s] ) 

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define icosahedron vertex array opject
icoPts = [
    ( 0.000,  0.000,  1.000), ( 0.894,  0.000,  0.447), ( 0.276,  0.851,  0.447), (-0.724,  0.526,  0.447),
    (-0.724, -0.526,  0.447), ( 0.276, -0.851,  0.447), ( 0.724,  0.526, -0.447), (-0.276,  0.851, -0.447), 
    (-0.894,  0.000, -0.447), (-0.276, -0.851, -0.447), ( 0.724, -0.526, -0.447), ( 0.000,  0.000, -1.000) ]
icoCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
icoIndices = [
  2,  0,  1,  3,  0,  2,  4,  0,  3,  5,  0,  4,  1,  0,  5, 11,  7,  6, 11,  8,  7, 11,  9,  8, 11, 10,  9, 11,  6, 10, 
  1,  6,  2,  2,  7,  3,  3,  8,  4,  4,  9,  5,  5, 10,  1,  2,  6,  7,  3,  7,  8,  4,  8,  9,  5,  9, 10,  1, 10,  6  ]
icoPosData = []
for inx in icoIndices: AddToBuffer( icoPosData, icoPts[inx] )
icoNVData = []
for inx_nv in range(0, len(icoIndices) // 3):
    nv = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
    for inx_p in range(0, 3): 
        for inx_s in range(0, 3): nv[inx_s] += icoPts[ icoIndices[inx_nv*3 + inx_p] ][inx_s]
    AddToBuffer( icoNVData, nv, 3 )
icoVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, icoPosData), (3, icoNVData) ] )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'tess.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ),
        CompileShader( 'tess.tctrl', GL_TESS_CONTROL_SHADER ),
        CompileShader( 'tess.teval', GL_TESS_EVALUATION_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'tess.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
# get unifor locations
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
modelViewMatLocation  = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelViewMat44")
normalMatLocation     = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_normalMat33")
# linke uniform blocks
ubMaterial = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_material")
ubLightSource = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_lightSource")
ubMaterial.Link(1)
ubLightSource.Link(2)

# create uniform block buffers
lightSourceBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubLightSource)
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.ambient', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.diffuse', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.specular', [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0])

icoMaterialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.45])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.4])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_color', [0.6, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 0.5, 0.5, 0.8])

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()
 

Geometrie maken met behulp van een geometrie-arcering in OGL 4.0 GLSL

Een eenvoudig OGL 4.0 GLSL-arceringprogramma dat het gebruik van geometrieschaduwen toont. Het programma wordt uitgevoerd met een phyton-script. Om het script uit te voeren, moeten PyOpenGL en NumPy zijn geïnstalleerd.

In dit voorbeeld wordt de hele geometrie (een cilinder) gegenereerd in de geometrie-arcering.

Vertex shader

geo.vert

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inNormal;
layout (location = 2) in vec3 inTangent;

out TVertexData
{
    mat3 orientationMat;
} outData;

void main()
{
    vec3 normal   = normalize( inNormal );
    vec3 tangent  = normalize( inTangent );
    vec3 binormal = cross( tangent, normal );
    
    outData.orientationMat = mat3( normal, cross( binormal, normal ), binormal );
    gl_Position = vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
}
 

Geometrie arcering

geo.geo

#version 400

layout( invocations = 3 ) in;
layout( points ) in;
layout( triangle_strip, max_vertices = 160 ) out;

in TVertexData
{
    mat3 orientationMat;
} inData[];

out TGeometryData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec3 col;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_viewMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelMat44;

void NewVertex( in vec3 pt, in mat4 transMat )
{
    vec4 viewPos = transMat * vec4( pt, 1.0 );
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
    EmitVertex();
}

const int circumferenceTile = 36;

void main()
{
    vec4 origin = gl_in[0].gl_Position;
    origin /= origin.w;
    mat4 orintationMat = mat4( vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[0], 0.0 ),
                               vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[1], 0.0 ),
                               vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[2], 0.0 ),
                               origin );
    mat4 modelViewMat = u_viewMat44 * u_modelMat44 * orintationMat;
    mat3 normalMat = mat3( modelViewMat );
  
    outData.col = vec3( 0.5, 0.7, 0.6 );

    if ( gl_InvocationID == 0 ) // top of the cylinder
    {
        outData.nv  = normalMat * vec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0);
        vec2 prevPt = vec2( 0.0, 1.0 );
        for ( int inx = 1; inx <= circumferenceTile; inx += 2 )
        {
            float ang1 = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx) / float(circumferenceTile);
            float ang2 = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx+1) / float(circumferenceTile);
            vec2 actPt1 = vec2( sin(ang1), cos(ang1) );
            vec2 actPt2 = vec2( sin(ang2), cos(ang2) );
      
            NewVertex( vec3(prevPt.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt1.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt2.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            
            EndPrimitive();
            prevPt = actPt2;
        }
    }

    if ( gl_InvocationID == 1 ) // bottom of the cylinder  
    {
        outData.nv  = normalMat * vec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0);    
        vec2 prevPt = vec2( 0.0, 1.0 );
        for ( int inx = circumferenceTile-1; inx >= 0; inx -= 2 )
        {
            float ang1 = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx) / float(circumferenceTile);
            float ang2 = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx-1) / float(circumferenceTile);
            vec2 actPt1 = vec2( sin(ang1), cos(ang1) );
            vec2 actPt2 = vec2( sin(ang2), cos(ang2) );    
            NewVertex( vec3(prevPt.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt1.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt2.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            
            EndPrimitive();
            prevPt = actPt2;
        }
    }

    if ( gl_InvocationID == 2 ) // hull of the cylinder
    {
        vec2 prevPt = vec2( 0.0, 1.0 );
        for ( int inx = 1; inx <= circumferenceTile; ++ inx )
        {
            float ang = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx) / float(circumferenceTile);
            vec2 actPt = vec2( sin(ang), cos(ang) );
            
            outData.nv = normalMat * vec3(prevPt, 0.0);
            NewVertex( vec3(prevPt.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            outData.nv = normalMat * vec3(actPt, 0.0);
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            outData.nv = normalMat * vec3(prevPt, 0.0);
            NewVertex( vec3(prevPt.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            outData.nv = normalMat * vec3(actPt, 0.0);
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            
            prevPt = actPt;
        }
        EndPrimitive();
    }
}
 

Fragment shader

geo.frag

#version 400

in TGeometryData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec3 col;
} inData;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform UB_material
{
    float u_roughness;
    float u_fresnel0;
    vec4  u_specularTint;
};

struct TLightSource
{
    vec4 ambient;
    vec4 diffuse;
    vec4 specular;
    vec4 dir;
};

uniform UB_lightSource
{
    TLightSource u_lightSource;
};

float Fresnel_Schlick( float theta )
{
    float m = clamp( 1.0 - theta, 0.0, 1.0 );
    float m2 = m * m;
    return m2 * m2 * m; // pow( m, 5.0 )
}

vec3 LightModel( vec3 esPt, vec3 esPtNV, vec3 col, vec4 specularTint, float roughness, float fresnel0 )
{
  vec3  esVLight      = normalize( -u_lightSource.dir.xyz );
  vec3  esVEye        = normalize( -esPt );
  vec3  halfVector    = normalize( esVEye + esVLight );
  float HdotL         = dot( halfVector, esVLight );
  float NdotL         = dot( esPtNV, esVLight );
  float NdotV         = dot( esPtNV, esVEye );
  float NdotH         = dot( esPtNV, halfVector );
  float NdotH2        = NdotH * NdotH;
  float NdotL_clamped = max( NdotL, 0.0 );
  float NdotV_clamped = max( NdotV, 0.0 );
  float m2            = roughness * roughness;
  
  // Lambertian diffuse
  float k_diffuse = NdotL_clamped;
  // Schlick approximation
  float fresnel = fresnel0 + ( 1.0 - fresnel0 ) * Fresnel_Schlick( HdotL );
  // Beckmann distribution
  float distribution = max( 0.0, exp( ( NdotH2 - 1.0 ) / ( m2 * NdotH2 ) ) / ( 3.14159265 * m2 * NdotH2 * NdotH2 ) );
  // Torrance-Sparrow geometric term
  float geometric_att = min( 1.0, min( 2.0 * NdotH * NdotV_clamped / HdotL, 2.0 * NdotH * NdotL_clamped / HdotL ) );
  // Microfacet bidirectional reflectance distribution function 
  float k_specular = fresnel * distribution * geometric_att / ( 4.0 * NdotL_clamped * NdotV_clamped );
  
  vec3 lightColor = col.rgb * u_lightSource.ambient.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_diffuse ) * col.rgb * u_lightSource.diffuse.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_specular ) * mix( col.rgb, specularTint.rgb, specularTint.a ) *     u_lightSource.specular.rgb;
  return lightColor;
}

void main()
{
    vec3 lightCol = LightModel( inData.pos, inData.nv, inData.col, u_specularTint, u_roughness, u_fresnel0 );
    fragColor = vec4( clamp( lightCol, 0.0, 1.0 ), 1.0 );
}
 

Phyton-script

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

sin120 = 0.8660254
rotateCamera = False

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    dist = 3.0
    currentTime = time()
    comeraRotAng = CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ) 
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = Perspective(90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    viewMat = Translate( viewMat, np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -12.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, comeraRotAng if rotateCamera else 0.0, 0.0] )

    # set up light source
    lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.dir', TransformVec4([-0.1, 1.0, -5.0, 0.0], viewMat) )
    
    # set up the model matrix
    modelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: modelMat = RotateY( modelMat, comeraRotAng )
    modelMat = Scale( modelMat, np.repeat( 4, 3 ) )
    #modelMat = Translate( modelMat, np.array( [0.0, 0.0, 1.0] ) )
    #modelMat = RotateY( modelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 20.0 ) )
    modelMat = RotateX( modelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 9.0 ) )
 
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( viewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, viewMat )
    lightSourceBuffer.BindToTarget()
    
    # draw point
    materialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelMat )
    glBindVertexArray( pointVAObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_POINTS, 0, 1 )
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER: 'geometry', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

# representation of a uniform block
class UniformBlock:
     def __init__(self, shaderProg, name):
        self.shaderProg = shaderProg 
        self.name = name
     def Link(self, bindingPoint):
        self.bindingPoint = bindingPoint
        self.noOfUniforms = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS)
        self.maxUniformNameLen = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_MAX_LENGTH)
        self.index = glGetUniformBlockIndex(self.shaderProg, self.name)
        intData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS, intData)
        self.count = intData[0]
        self.indices = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_INDICES, self.indices)
        self.offsets = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformsiv(self.shaderProg, self.count, self.indices, GL_UNIFORM_OFFSET, self.offsets)
        strLengthData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        arraysizeData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        typeData = np.zeros(1, dtype='uint32')
        nameData = np.chararray(self.maxUniformNameLen+1)
        self.namemap = {}
        self.dataSize = 0 
        for inx in range(0, len(self.indices)):
            glGetActiveUniform( self.shaderProg, self.indices[inx], self.maxUniformNameLen, strLengthData, arraysizeData,     typeData, nameData.data )
            name = nameData.tostring()[:strLengthData[0]]
            self.namemap[name] = inx
            self.dataSize = max(self.dataSize, self.offsets[inx] + arraysizeData * 16) 
        glUniformBlockBinding(self.shaderProg, self.index, self.bindingPoint)
        print('\nuniform block %s size:%4d' % (self.name, self.dataSize))
        for uName in self.namemap:
            print( '    %-40s index:%2d    offset:%4d' % (uName, self.indices[self.namemap[uName]], self.offsets    [self.namemap[uName]]) ) 

# representation of a uniform block buffer
class UniformBlockBuffer:
    def __init__(self, ub):
        self.namemap = ub.namemap
        self.offsets = ub.offsets
        self.bindingPoint = ub.bindingPoint
        self.object = glGenBuffers(1)
        self.dataSize = ub.dataSize
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.zeros(self.dataSize//4, dtype='float32')
        glBufferData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.dataSize, dataArray, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW)
    def BindToTarget(self):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        glBindBufferBase(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.bindingPoint, self.object)
    def BindDataFloat(self, name, dataArr):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.array(dataArr, dtype='float32')
        glBufferSubData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.offsets[self.namemap[name]], len(dataArr)*4, dataArray)

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def Multiply(matA, matB):
    matC = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        for i1 in range(0, 4):
            matC[i0,i1] = matB[i0,0] * matA[0,i1] + matB[i0,1] * matA[1,i1] + matB[i0,2] * matA[2,i1] + matB[i0,3] * matA    [3,i1]    
    return matC

def ToMat33(mat44):
    mat33 = np.matrix(np.identity(3), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 3): mat33[i0, i1] = mat44[i0, i1]
    return mat33

def TransformVec4(vecA,mat44):
    vecB = np.zeros(4, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        vecB[i0] = vecA[0] * mat44[0,i0] + vecA[1] * mat44[1,i0] + vecA[2] * mat44[2,i0]  + vecA[3] * mat44[3,i0]
    return vecB

def Perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

def AddToBuffer( buffer, data, count=1 ): 
    for inx_c in range(0, count):
        for inx_s in range(0, len(data)): buffer.append( data[inx_s] ) 

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define location vertex array opject
pointVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, [0.0, 0.0, 0.0] ), (3, [0.0, 0.0, -1.0]), (3, [1.0, 0.0, 0.0]) ] )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'geo.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'geo.geo', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'geo.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
# get unifor locations
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
viewMatLocation       = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_viewMat44")
modelMatLocation      = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelMat44")
# linke uniform blocks
ubMaterial = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_material")
ubLightSource = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_lightSource")
ubMaterial.Link(1)
ubLightSource.Link(2)

# create uniform block buffers
lightSourceBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubLightSource)
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.ambient', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.diffuse', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.specular', [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0])

materialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
materialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.5])
materialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.2])
materialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 0.5, 0.5, 0.8])

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()
 

Eerste OGL 4.0 GLSL shader-programma

Een eenvoudig OGL 4.0 GLSL-arceringprogramma met hoekpuntpositie en kleurkenmerk. Het programma wordt uitgevoerd met een phyton-script. Om het script uit te voeren, moet PyOpenGL zijn geïnstalleerd.

Een arceringprogramma bestaat minstens uit een hoekpunt-arcering en een fragmant-arcering (met uitzondering van computer-shaders). De 1e arceringstrap is de hoekpunt-arcering en de laatste shader-fase is de fragment-arcering (tussendoor zijn optionele verdere fasen mogelijk, die hier niet verder worden beschreven).

Vertex shader

first.vet

De hoekpuntshader verwerkt de hoekpunten en bijbehorende attributen die zijn opgegeven door het tekencommando. De hoekpuntshader verwerkt vertices uit de invoerstroom en kan deze op elke gewenste manier manipuleren. Een hoekpuntshader ontvangt een enkel hoekpunt van de invoerstroom en genereert een enkel hoekpunt naar de uitvoerhoekpuntstroom.

In ons voorbeeld tekenen we een enkele driehoek, dus de hoekpuntshader wordt 3 keer uitgevoerd, eenmaal voor elk hoekpunt van de driehoek. In dit geval is de invoer voor de hoekpuntshader de hoekpuntpositie in vec3 inPos en het in vec3 inCol . De out vec3 vertCol doorgegeven aan de volgende arceringstrap ( out vec3 vertCol ).

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inCol;

out vec3 vertCol;

void main()
{
    vertCol = inCol;
    gl_Position = vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
}
 

Fragment shader

first.frag

In dit voorbeeld volgt de fragment-arcering onmiddellijk na de hoekpunt-arcering. De hoekpuntposities en attributen worden geïnterpoleerd binnen elk vlak voor elk fragment. De fragment-arcering wordt één keer uitgevoerd voor elk fragment op de hele driehoek en ontvangt het kleurkenmerk van de frictie-arcering. Omdat een driehoek wordt getekend, wordt het kleurkenmerk geïnterpoleerd volgens de barycentrische coördinaten van het fragment op basis van de getekende driehoek.

#version 400

in vec3 vertCol;

out vec4 fragColor;

void main()
{
    fragColor = vec4( vertCol, 1.0 );
}
 

Phyton-script

Het python-script is alleen om het shader-programma te compileren, te koppelen en uit te voeren en om geometrie te tekenen. Het kan triviaal worden herschreven in C of iets anders. Het is niet het deel van deze documentatie waaraan de grootste aandacht moet worden besteed.

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
from sys import *
from array import array
             
# draw event
def OnDraw(): 
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glBindVertexArray( vaObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 3 )
    glutSwapBuffers()

# read vertex shader program
with open( 'first.vert', 'r' ) as vertFile:
    vertCode = vertFile.read()
print( '\nvertex shader code:' )
print( vertCode )

# read fragment shader program
with open( 'first.frag', 'r' ) as fragFile:
    fragCode = fragFile.read()
print( '\nfragment shader code:' )
print( fragCode )

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW = 800
wndH = 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define triangle data
posData = [ -0.636, -0.45, 0.0, 0.636, -0.45, 0.0, 0.0, 0.9, 0.0 ]
colData = [ 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ]
posAr = array( "f", posData )
colAr = array( "f", colData )

# create buffers
posBuffer = glGenBuffers(1)
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, posBuffer )
glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, posAr.tostring(), GL_STATIC_DRAW )
colBuffer = glGenBuffers(1)
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, colBuffer )
glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, colAr.tostring(), GL_STATIC_DRAW )

# create vertex array opject
vaObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
glBindVertexArray( vaObj )
glEnableVertexAttribArray( 0 )
glEnableVertexAttribArray( 1 )
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, posBuffer )
glVertexAttribPointer( 0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, colBuffer )
glVertexAttribPointer( 1, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )

# compile vertex shader
vertShader = glCreateShader( GL_VERTEX_SHADER )
glShaderSource( vertShader, vertCode )
glCompileShader( vertShader )
result = glGetShaderiv( vertShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
if not (result):
    print( glGetShaderInfoLog( vertShader ) )
    sys.exit()

# compile fragment shader
fragShader = glCreateShader( GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
glShaderSource( fragShader, fragCode )
glCompileShader( fragShader )
result = glGetShaderiv( fragShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
if not (result):
    print( glGetShaderInfoLog( fragShader ) )
    sys.exit()

# link shader program
shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
glAttachShader( shaderProgram, vertShader )
glAttachShader( shaderProgram, fragShader )
glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
if not (result):
    print( 'link error:' )
    print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
    sys.exit()

# start main loop
glutMainLoop()
 

Installatie of instellingen

Gedetailleerde instructies voor het instellen of installeren van glsl.

Zet een textuur op het model en gebruik een textuurmatrix in OGL 4.0 GLSL

Een eenvoudig OGL 4.0 GLSL-shaderprogramma dat laat zien hoe een 2D-textuur op een mesh in kaart kan worden gebracht. Het programma wordt uitgevoerd met een phyton-script. Om het script uit te voeren, moeten PyOpenGL en NumPy zijn geïnstalleerd.

De textuurmatrix definieert hoe de textuur op het net wordt afgebeeld. Door de textuurmatrix te manipuleren, kan de textuur worden verplaatst, geschaald en geroteerd.

Vertex shader

tex.vert

#versie 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec2 inTex;

out vec2 vertTex;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_viewMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelMat44;
uniform mat4 u_textureMat44;

void main()
{
    vertTex = ( u_textureMat44 * vec4( inTex, 0.0, 1.0 ) ).st;
    vec4 modolPos = u_modelMat44 * vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
    vec4 viewPos = u_viewMat44 * modolPos;
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
}
 

Fragment shader

tex.frag

#version 400

in vec2 vertTex;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform sampler2D u_texture;

void main()
{
    vec4 texCol = texture( u_texture, vertTex.st );
    fragColor = vec4( texCol.rgb, 1.0 );
}
 

Phyton-script

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    currentTime = time()
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = perspective( 90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = Translate( np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32'), np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -15.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, CalcAng( currentTime, 60.0 ), 0.0] )
    
    # set up tetrahedron model matrix
    cubeModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    cubeModelMat = RotateX( cubeModelMat, -90.0 )
    cubeModelMat = Scale( cubeModelMat, np.repeat( 5.0, 3 ) )
    
    # set up texture matrix
    texMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    deltaT = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / 28.0 ) * 28.0
    if deltaT < 7.0 or deltaT >= 21.0:
        texMat = Scale( texMat, np.repeat( CalcMove(currentTime, 7.0, [1.0, 2.0]), 3 ) )
    if deltaT >= 7.0 and deltaT < 14.0 or deltaT >= 21.0:
        transAng = math.radians( CalcAng(currentTime, 7.0) )
        texMat = Translate( texMat, np.array( [math.sin(transAng)*0.5, math.cos(transAng)*0.5-0.5, 0.0] ) )
    if deltaT >= 14.0:
        texMat = RotateZ( texMat, CalcAng(currentTime, 7.0) )
    
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( viewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, viewMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( textureMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, texMat )
    glUniform1i( textureLocation, 0 )
    
    # draw cube
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, cubeModelMat )
    glBindVertexArray( cubeVAObj )
    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, len(cubeIndices), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, cubeIndices)
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define cube vertex array opject
icoPts = [
    [-1.0, -1.0,  1.0], [ 1.0, -1.0,  1.0], [ 1.0,  1.0,  1.0], [-1.0,  1.0,  1.0],
    [-1.0, -1.0, -1.0], [ 1.0, -1.0, -1.0], [ 1.0,  1.0, -1.0], [-1.0,  1.0, -1.0] ]
cubePosData = []
for inx in [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6, 2, 5, 4, 7, 6, 4, 0, 3, 7, 3, 2, 6, 7, 1, 0, 4, 5 ]:
    for inx_s in range(0, 3): cubePosData.append( icoPts[inx][inx_s] )
cubeTexData = []
for inx in range(0, 6):
    for texCoord in [-0.5, -0.5, 0.5, -0.5, 0.5, 0.5, -0.5, 0.5]: cubeTexData.append( texCoord )
icoCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
cubeIndices = []
for inx in range(0, 6):
    for inx_s in [0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3]: cubeIndices.append( inx * 4 + inx_s )
cubeVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, cubePosData), (2, cubeTexData) ] )
cubeInxArr = np.array( cubeIndices, dtype='uint' )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4tex/tex.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4tex/tex.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
viewMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_viewMat44")
modelMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelMat44")
textureMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_textureMat44")
textureLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_texture")

# create texture
texCX, texCY = 128, 128
texPlan = np.zeros( texCX * texCY * 4, dtype=np.uint8 )
for inx_x in range(0, texCX):
    for inx_y in range(0, texCY):
        val_x = math.sin( math.pi * 6.0 * inx_x / texCX )
        val_y = math.sin( math.pi * 6.0 * inx_y / texCY )
        inx_tex = inx_y * texCX * 4 + inx_x * 4
        texPlan[inx_tex + 0] = int( 128 + 127 * val_x )
        texPlan[inx_tex + 1] = 63
        texPlan[inx_tex + 2] = int( 128 + 127 * val_y )
        texPlan[inx_tex + 3] = 255
glActiveTexture( GL_TEXTURE0 )
texObj = glGenTextures( 1  )
glBindTexture( GL_TEXTURE_2D, texObj )
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, texCX, texCY, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, texPlan)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT) 

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()
 

De geometrie en de oppervlakteweergave schakelen met behulp van subroutines in OGL 4.0 GLSL

Een eenvoudig OGL 4.0 GLSL-shaderprogramma dat de gebruik-shader-subroutines toont. Het programma wordt uitgevoerd met een phyton-script. Om het script uit te voeren, moeten PyOpenGL en NumPy zijn geïnstalleerd.

De subroutines schakelen tussen verschillende geometrie die is gegenereerd in de geometrie-arcering en wijzigen de oppervlakteweergave.

Vertex shader

subr.vert

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inNormal;
layout (location = 2) in vec3 inTangent;

out TVertexData
{
    mat3 orientationMat;
} outData;

void main()
{
    vec3 normal   = normalize( inNormal );
    vec3 tangent  = normalize( inTangent );
    vec3 binormal = cross( tangent, normal );
    
    outData.orientationMat = mat3( normal, cross( binormal, normal ), binormal );
    gl_Position = vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
}
 

Geometrie arcering

subr.geo

#version 400

layout( points ) in;
layout( triangle_strip, max_vertices = 512 ) out;

in TVertexData
{
    mat3 orientationMat;
} inData[];

out TGeometryData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec2 tex;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_viewMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelMat44;
uniform mat4 u_textureMat44;

void SetTextureCoord( in vec2 tecCoord )
{
    vec4 tex = u_textureMat44 * vec4( tecCoord, 0.0, 1.0 );
    outData.tex = tex.xy;
}

void NewVertex( in vec3 pt, in mat4 transMat )
{
    vec4 viewPos = transMat * vec4( pt, 1.0 );
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
    EmitVertex();
}

void NewVertexAndTex( in vec3 pt, in mat4 transMat )
{
    SetTextureCoord( pt.xy * 0.5 + 0.5 );
    NewVertex( pt, transMat ); 
}

void NewVertexNvTex( in vec3 pt, in mat4 transMat, in vec3 nv, in vec2 tex )
{
    outData.nv = nv;
    SetTextureCoord( tex );
    vec4 viewPos = transMat * vec4( pt, 1.0 );
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
    EmitVertex();
}

subroutine void TShape( in mat4 );
subroutine uniform TShape su_shape;

void main()
{
    vec4 origin = gl_in[0].gl_Position;
    origin /= origin.w;
    mat4 orintationMat = mat4( vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[0], 0.0 ),
                               vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[1], 0.0 ),
                               vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[2], 0.0 ),
                               origin );
    mat4 modelMat = u_modelMat44 * orintationMat;

    su_shape( modelMat );
}

subroutine(TShape) void DrawSphere( in mat4 modelMat )
{           
    const int circumferenceTile = 18;
    const int layersTile        = 11;

    mat4 modelViewMat = u_viewMat44 * modelMat;
    mat3 normalMat    = mat3( modelViewMat );

    float preStepLay = 0.0; 
    vec2  prePtLay   = vec2( 0.0, -1.0 );
    for ( int inxLay = 1; inxLay <= layersTile; ++ inxLay )
    {
        float stepLay = float(inxLay) / float(layersTile);
        float angLay  = 3.14159 * stepLay;
        vec2  ptLay   = vec2( sin(angLay), -cos(angLay) );

        float preStepCir = 0.0; 
        vec2  prePtCir   = vec2( 0.0, 1.0 );
        for ( int inxCir = 0; inxCir <= circumferenceTile; ++ inxCir )
        {    
            float stepCir = float(inxCir) / float(circumferenceTile);
            float angCir  = 2.0 * 3.14159 * stepCir;
            vec2  ptCir   = vec2( sin(angCir), cos(angCir) );

            if ( inxLay == 1 )
            {
                if ( inxCir >= 0 )
                {
                    vec3 pt1 = vec3( ptLay.x * prePtCir.x, ptLay.x * prePtCir.y, ptLay.y );
                    vec3 pt2 = vec3( 0.0, 0.0, -1.0 );
                    vec3 pt3 = vec3( ptLay.x * ptCir.x, ptLay.x * ptCir.y, ptLay.y );
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt1, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt1, vec2( preStepCir * 2.0, stepLay ) );
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt2, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt2, vec2( preStepCir + stepCir, preStepLay )  );   
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt3, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt3, vec2( stepCir * 2.0, stepLay )  ); 
                    EndPrimitive();
                }  
            }
            else if ( inxLay == layersTile )
            {
                if ( inxCir > 0 )
                {
                    vec3 pt1 = vec3( prePtLay.x * prePtCir.x, prePtLay.x * prePtCir.y, prePtLay.y );
                    vec3 pt2 = vec3( prePtLay.x * ptCir.x, prePtLay.x * ptCir.y, prePtLay.y );
                    vec3 pt3 = vec3( 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 );
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt1, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt1, vec2( preStepCir * 2.0, preStepLay ) );
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt2, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt2, vec2( stepCir * 2.0, preStepLay )  );   
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt3, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt3, vec2( preStepCir + stepCir, stepLay )  ); 
                    EndPrimitive();
                }    
            }
            else
            {
                vec3 pt1 = vec3( prePtLay.x * ptCir.x, prePtLay.x * ptCir.y, prePtLay.y );
                vec3 pt2 = vec3( ptLay.x * ptCir.x, ptLay.x * ptCir.y, ptLay.y );
                NewVertexNvTex( pt1, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt1, vec2( stepCir * 2.0, preStepLay ) );
                NewVertexNvTex( pt2, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt2, vec2( stepCir * 2.0, stepLay )  );
            }

            preStepCir = stepCir;
            prePtCir   = ptCir;
        }
        if ( inxLay > 1 && inxLay < layersTile )
            EndPrimitive();
  
        preStepLay = stepLay;
        prePtLay   = ptLay;
    }
}

subroutine(TShape) void DrawTorus( in mat4 modelMat )
{
    const int   circumferenceTile = 12;
    const int   layersTile        = 18;
    const float torusRad          = 0.8;
    const float ringRad           = 0.4;

    mat4 modelViewMat = u_viewMat44 * modelMat;
    mat3 normalMat    = mat3( modelViewMat );

    float preStepLay = 0.0; 
    mat4  prePosMat;
    for ( int inxLay = 0; inxLay <= layersTile; ++ inxLay )
    {
        float stepLay = float(inxLay) / float(layersTile);
        float angLay  = 2.0 * 3.14159 * stepLay;
        mat4  posMat = mat4( 
            vec4( cos(angLay), sin(angLay), 0.0, 0.0 ),
            vec4( sin(angLay), cos(angLay), 0.0, 0.0 ),
            vec4( 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 ),
            vec4( cos(angLay) * torusRad, sin(angLay) * torusRad, 0.0, 1.0 ) );
        
        for ( int inxCir = 0; inxLay > 0 && inxCir <= circumferenceTile; ++ inxCir )
        {    
            float stepCir = float(inxCir) / float(circumferenceTile);
            float angCir  = 2.0 * 3.14159 * stepCir;
            vec2  ptCir   = vec2( sin(angCir), cos(angCir) );

            vec4 tempPt = vec4( ptCir.x * ringRad, 0.0, ptCir.y * ringRad, 1.0 );
            vec4 pt1 = prePosMat * tempPt;
            vec4 pt2 = posMat * tempPt;
            NewVertexNvTex( pt1.xyz, modelViewMat, normalMat * normalize(pt1.xyz - prePosMat[3].xyz), vec2(stepCir,     preStepLay*2.0) );
            NewVertexNvTex( pt2.xyz, modelViewMat, normalMat * normalize(pt2.xyz - posMat[3].xyz), vec2(stepCir, stepLay*2.0)      );
        }
        EndPrimitive();
  
        preStepLay = stepLay;
        prePosMat  = posMat;
    }
}
 

Fragment shader

subr.frag

#version 400

in TGeometryData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec2 tex;
} inData;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform sampler2D u_texture;

uniform UB_material
{
    float u_roughness;
    float u_fresnel0;
    vec4  u_color;
    vec4  u_specularTint;
};

struct TLightSource
{
    vec4 ambient;
    vec4 diffuse;
    vec4 specular;
    vec4 dir;
};

uniform UB_lightSource
{
    TLightSource u_lightSource;
};

subroutine vec4 TSurface( void );
subroutine uniform TSurface su_surface;

float Fresnel_Schlick( in float theta );
vec3 LightModel( in vec3 esPt, in vec3 esPtNV, in vec3 col, in vec4 specularTint, in float roughness, in float fresnel0 );

void main()
{
    vec4 fragCol = su_surface();
    vec3 lightCol = LightModel( inData.pos, inData.nv, fragCol.rgb, u_specularTint, u_roughness, u_fresnel0 );
    
    fragColor = vec4( clamp( lightCol, 0.0, 1.0 ), fragCol.a );
}

subroutine(TSurface) vec4 SurfaceColor( void )
{
  return u_color;
} 

subroutine(TSurface) vec4 SurfaceTexture( void )
{
  return texture( u_texture, inData.tex.st );
} 

float Fresnel_Schlick( in float theta )
{
    float m = clamp( 1.0 - theta, 0.0, 1.0 );
    float m2 = m * m;
    return m2 * m2 * m; // pow( m, 5.0 )
}

vec3 LightModel( in vec3 esPt, in vec3 esPtNV, in vec3 col, in vec4 specularTint, in float roughness, in float fresnel0 )
{
  vec3  esVLight      = normalize( -u_lightSource.dir.xyz );
  vec3  esVEye        = normalize( -esPt );
  vec3  halfVector    = normalize( esVEye + esVLight );
  float HdotL         = dot( halfVector, esVLight );
  float NdotL         = dot( esPtNV, esVLight );
  float NdotV         = dot( esPtNV, esVEye );
  float NdotH         = dot( esPtNV, halfVector );
  float NdotH2        = NdotH * NdotH;
  float NdotL_clamped = max( NdotL, 0.0 );
  float NdotV_clamped = max( NdotV, 0.0 );
  float m2            = roughness * roughness;
  
  // Lambertian diffuse
  float k_diffuse = NdotL_clamped;
  // Schlick approximation
  float fresnel = fresnel0 + ( 1.0 - fresnel0 ) * Fresnel_Schlick( HdotL );
  // Beckmann distribution
  float distribution = max( 0.0, exp( ( NdotH2 - 1.0 ) / ( m2 * NdotH2 ) ) / ( 3.14159265 * m2 * NdotH2 * NdotH2 ) );
  // Torrance-Sparrow geometric term
  float geometric_att = min( 1.0, min( 2.0 * NdotH * NdotV_clamped / HdotL, 2.0 * NdotH * NdotL_clamped / HdotL ) );
  // Microfacet bidirectional reflectance distribution function 
  float k_specular = fresnel * distribution * geometric_att / ( 4.0 * NdotL_clamped * NdotV_clamped );
  
  vec3 lightColor = col.rgb * u_lightSource.ambient.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_diffuse ) * col.rgb * u_lightSource.diffuse.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_specular ) * mix( col.rgb, specularTint.rgb, specularTint.a ) * u_lightSource.specular.rgb;
  return lightColor;
}
 

Phyton-script

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

sin120 = 0.8660254
rotateCamera = False

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    dist = 3.0
    currentTime = time()
    comeraRotAng = CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ) 
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = Perspective(90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    viewMat = Translate( viewMat, np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -14.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, comeraRotAng if rotateCamera else 0.0, 0.0] )

    # set up light source
    lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.dir', TransformVec4([-1.0, -1.0, -5.0, 0.0], viewMat) )
    
    # set up model matrices
    modelMat = []
    for inx in range(0, 2):
        modelMat.append( np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32') )
        if not rotateCamera: modelMat[inx] = RotateY( modelMat[inx], comeraRotAng )
    
    modelMat[0] = Scale( modelMat[0], np.repeat( 3, 3 ) )
    modelMat[0] = Translate( modelMat[0], np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -2.0] ) )
    modelMat[0] = RotateY( modelMat[0], CalcAng( currentTime, 23.0 ) )
    modelMat[0] = RotateX( modelMat[0], CalcAng( currentTime, 13.0 ) )
    
    modelMat[1] = Scale( modelMat[1], np.repeat( 3, 3 ) )
    modelMat[1] = Translate( modelMat[1], np.array( [0.0, 0.0, 2.0] ) )
    modelMat[1] = RotateY( modelMat[1], CalcAng( currentTime, 17.0 ) )
    modelMat[1] = RotateX( modelMat[1], CalcAng( currentTime, 9.0 ) )

    # set up texture matrix
    texMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
 
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( viewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, viewMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( textureMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, texMat )
    glUniform1i( textureLocation, 0 )
    lightSourceBuffer.BindToTarget()
    
    # draw points
    glBindVertexArray( pointVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, 2):
        # set up geometry shader subroutine
        shape = 1 if inx==0 else 0 # 0: sphere, 1: torus 
        glUniformSubroutinesuiv(GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER, 1, np.array( [shape], dtype='uint' ))
        # set up fragment shader subroutine
        surfaceKind = inx # 0: color, 1: texture
        glUniformSubroutinesuiv(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER, 1, np.array( [surfaceKind], dtype='uint' ))
       
        materialBuffer[inx].BindToTarget()
        glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelMat[inx] )
        glDrawArrays( GL_POINTS, 0, 1 )
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER: 'geometry', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

# representation of a uniform block
class UniformBlock:
     def __init__(self, shaderProg, name):
        self.shaderProg = shaderProg 
        self.name = name
     def Link(self, bindingPoint):
        self.bindingPoint = bindingPoint
        self.noOfUniforms = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS)
        self.maxUniformNameLen = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_MAX_LENGTH)
        self.index = glGetUniformBlockIndex(self.shaderProg, self.name)
        intData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS, intData)
        self.count = intData[0]
        self.indices = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_INDICES, self.indices)
        self.offsets = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformsiv(self.shaderProg, self.count, self.indices, GL_UNIFORM_OFFSET, self.offsets)
        strLengthData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        arraysizeData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        typeData = np.zeros(1, dtype='uint32')
        nameData = np.chararray(self.maxUniformNameLen+1)
        self.namemap = {}
        self.dataSize = 0 
        for inx in range(0, len(self.indices)):
            glGetActiveUniform( self.shaderProg, self.indices[inx], self.maxUniformNameLen, strLengthData, arraysizeData,     typeData, nameData.data )
            name = nameData.tostring()[:strLengthData[0]]
            self.namemap[name] = inx
            self.dataSize = max(self.dataSize, self.offsets[inx] + arraysizeData * 16) 
        glUniformBlockBinding(self.shaderProg, self.index, self.bindingPoint)
        print('\nuniform block %s size:%4d' % (self.name, self.dataSize))
        for uName in self.namemap:
            print( '    %-40s index:%2d    offset:%4d' % (uName, self.indices[self.namemap[uName]], self.offsets[self.namemap    [uName]]) ) 

# representation of a uniform block buffer
class UniformBlockBuffer:
    def __init__(self, ub):
        self.namemap = ub.namemap
        self.offsets = ub.offsets
        self.bindingPoint = ub.bindingPoint
        self.object = glGenBuffers(1)
        self.dataSize = ub.dataSize
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.zeros(self.dataSize//4, dtype='float32')
        glBufferData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.dataSize, dataArray, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW)
    def BindToTarget(self):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        glBindBufferBase(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.bindingPoint, self.object)
    def BindDataFloat(self, name, dataArr):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.array(dataArr, dtype='float32')
        glBufferSubData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.offsets[self.namemap[name]], len(dataArr)*4, dataArray)

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def Multiply(matA, matB):
    matC = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        for i1 in range(0, 4):
            matC[i0,i1] = matB[i0,0] * matA[0,i1] + matB[i0,1] * matA[1,i1] + matB[i0,2] * matA[2,i1] + matB[i0,3] * matA[3,i1]        
    return matC

def ToMat33(mat44):
    mat33 = np.matrix(np.identity(3), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 3): mat33[i0, i1] = mat44[i0, i1]
    return mat33

def TransformVec4(vecA,mat44):
    vecB = np.zeros(4, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        vecB[i0] = vecA[0] * mat44[0,i0] + vecA[1] * mat44[1,i0] + vecA[2] * mat44[2,i0]  + vecA[3] * mat44[3,i0]
    return vecB

def Perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

def AddToBuffer( buffer, data, count=1 ): 
    for inx_c in range(0, count):
        for inx_s in range(0, len(data)): buffer.append( data[inx_s] ) 

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define location vertex array opject
pointVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, [0.0, 0.0, 0.0] ), (3, [0.0, 0.0, 1.0]), (3, [1.0, 0.0, 0.0]) ] )

# create texture
texCX, texCY = 128, 128
texPlan = np.zeros( texCX * texCY * 4, dtype=np.uint8 )
for inx_x in range(0, texCX):
    for inx_y in range(0, texCY):
        val_x = math.sin( math.pi * 6.0 * inx_x / texCX )
        val_y = math.sin( math.pi * 6.0 * inx_y / texCY )
        inx_tex = inx_y * texCX * 4 + inx_x * 4
        texPlan[inx_tex + 0] = int( 128 + 127 * val_x )
        texPlan[inx_tex + 1] = 63
        texPlan[inx_tex + 2] = int( 128 + 127 * val_y )
        texPlan[inx_tex + 3] = 255
glActiveTexture( GL_TEXTURE0 )
texObj = glGenTextures( 1  )
glBindTexture( GL_TEXTURE_2D, texObj )
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, texCX, texCY, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, texPlan)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT) 

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4subr/subr.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4subr/subr.geo', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4subr/subr.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
# get unifor locations
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
viewMatLocation       = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_viewMat44")
modelMatLocation      = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelMat44")
textureMatLocation    = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_textureMat44")
textureLocation       = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_texture")
# linke uniform blocks
ubMaterial = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_material")
ubLightSource = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_lightSource")
ubMaterial.Link(1)
ubLightSource.Link(2)

# create uniform block buffers
lightSourceBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubLightSource)
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.ambient', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.diffuse', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.specular', [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0])

materialBuffer = [ UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial), UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial) ]

materialBuffer[0].BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.45])
materialBuffer[0].BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.45])
materialBuffer[0].BindDataFloat(b'u_color', [0.5, 0.7, 0.6, 1.0])
materialBuffer[0].BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 0.5, 0.5, 0.8])

materialBuffer[1].BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.4])
materialBuffer[1].BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.4])
materialBuffer[1].BindDataFloat(b'u_color', [0.7, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0])
materialBuffer[1].BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[0.5, 1.0, 0.5, 0.8])

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()
 

Interfaceblok en uniform blok gebruiken: een Cook-Torrance lichtmodel in OGL 4.0 GLSL

Een eenvoudig OGL 4.0 GLSL-shaderprogramma dat het gebruik van een interfaceblok en een uniform blok op een Cook-Torrance microfacet light-modelimplementatie toont. Het programma wordt uitgevoerd met een phyton-script. Om het script uit te voeren, moeten PyOpenGL en NumPy zijn geïnstalleerd.

Een interfaceblok is een groep GLSL-invoer-, uitvoer-, uniforme of opslagbuffervariabelen. Een Uniform Blockis is een interface blok met de opslag qualifier uniform .

Vertex shader

ibub.vert

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inNV;
layout (location = 2) in vec3 inCol;

out TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec3 col;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelViewMat44;
uniform mat3 u_normalMat33;

void main()
{
    vec4 viewPos = u_modelViewMat44 * vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
    
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    outData.nv  = u_normalMat33 * normalize( inNV );
    outData.col = inCol;
    
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
}
 

Fragment shader

ibub.frag

#version 400

in TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec3 col;
} inData;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform UB_material
{
    float u_roughness;
    float u_fresnel0;
    vec4  u_specularTint;
};

struct TLightSource
{
    vec4 ambient;
    vec4 diffuse;
    vec4 specular;
    vec4 dir;
};

uniform UB_lightSource
{
    TLightSource u_lightSource;
};

vec3 CookTorrance( vec3 esPt, vec3 esPtNV, vec3 col, vec4 specularTint, float roughness, float fresnel0 )
{
  vec3  esVLight      = normalize( -u_lightSource.dir.xyz );
  vec3  esVEye        = normalize( -esPt );
  vec3  halfVector    = normalize( esVEye + esVLight );
  vec3  reflVector    = normalize( reflect( -esVLight, esPtNV ) );
  float VdotR         = dot( esVEye, reflVector );
  float HdotL         = dot( halfVector, esVLight );
  float NdotL         = dot( esPtNV, esVLight );
  float NdotV         = dot( esPtNV, esVEye );
  float NdotH         = dot( esPtNV, halfVector );
  float NdotH2        = NdotH * NdotH;
  float NdotL_clamped = max( NdotL, 0.0 );
  float NdotV_clamped = max( NdotV, 0.0 );
  float m2            = roughness * roughness;
  
  // Lambertian diffuse
  float k_diffuse = NdotL_clamped;
  
  // Cook-Torrance fresnel
  float theta = HdotL;
  float n = (1.0 + sqrt(fresnel0)) / (1.0 - sqrt(fresnel0));
  float g = sqrt( n*n + theta * theta + 1.0 );
  float gc = g + theta;
  float g_c = g - theta;
  float q = (gc * theta - 1.0) / (g_c * theta + 1.0);
  float fresnel = 0.5 * (g_c * g_c) / (gc * gc) * (1.0 + q * q);

  // Gaussian  distribution
  float psi = acos( VdotR );
  float distribution = max( 0.0, HdotL * exp( - psi * psi / m2 ) );
  
  // Torrance-Sparrow geometric term
  float geometric_att = min( 1.0, min( 2.0 * NdotH * NdotV_clamped / HdotL, 2.0 * NdotH * NdotL_clamped / HdotL ) );

  // Microfacet bidirectional reflectance distribution function 
  float brdf_spec = fresnel * distribution * geometric_att / ( 4.0 * NdotL_clamped * NdotV_clamped );
  float k_specular = brdf_spec;

  vec3 lightColor = col.rgb * u_lightSource.ambient.rgb
                  + max( 0.0, k_diffuse ) * col.rgb * u_lightSource.diffuse.rgb +
                  + max( 0.0, k_specular ) * mix( col.rgb, specularTint.rgb, specularTint.a ) *     u_lightSource.specular.rgb;
  return lightColor;
}

void main()
{
    vec3 lightCol = CookTorrance( inData.pos, inData.nv, inData.col, u_specularTint, u_roughness, u_fresnel0 );
    fragColor = vec4( lightCol, 1.0 );
}
 

Phyton-script

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

sin120 = 0.8660254
rotateCamera = False

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    dist = 3.0
    currentTime = time()
    comeraRotAng = CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ) 
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = Perspective(90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = Translate( np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32'), np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -12.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, comeraRotAng if rotateCamera else 0.0, 0.0] )

    # set up light source
    lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.dir', TransformVec4([-3.0, -2.0, -1.0, 0.0], viewMat) )
    
    # set up tetrahedron model matrix
    tetModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: tetModelMat = RotateY( tetModelMat, comeraRotAng )
    tetModelMat = RotateX( tetModelMat, -90.0 )
    tetModelMat = Scale( tetModelMat, np.repeat( 2.4, 3 ) )
    tetModelMat = Translate( tetModelMat, np.array( [0.0, dist, 0.0] ) )
    tetModelMat = RotateY( tetModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 20.0 ) )
    tetModelMat = RotateX( tetModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 9.0 ) )
    
    # set up icosahedron model matrix
    icoModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: icoModelMat = RotateY( icoModelMat, comeraRotAng )
    icoModelMat = RotateX( icoModelMat, -90.0 )
    icoModelMat = Scale( icoModelMat, np.repeat( 2.0, 3 ) )
    icoModelMat = Translate( icoModelMat, np.array( [dist * -sin120, dist * -0.5, 0.0] ) )
    icoModelMat = RotateY( icoModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 20.0 ) )
    icoModelMat = RotateX( icoModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 11.0 ) )

    # set up cube model matrix
    cubeModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: cubeModelMat = RotateY( cubeModelMat, comeraRotAng )
    cubeModelMat = RotateX( cubeModelMat, -90.0 )
    cubeModelMat = Scale( cubeModelMat, np.repeat( 1.6, 3 ) )
    cubeModelMat = Translate( cubeModelMat, np.array( [dist * sin120, dist * -0.5, 0.0] ) )
    cubeModelMat = RotateY( cubeModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 20.0 ) )
    cubeModelMat = RotateX( cubeModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 13.0 ) )
 
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    lightSourceBuffer.BindToTarget()
    
    # draw tetrahedron
    tetMaterialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    modelViewMat = Multiply(viewMat, tetModelMat)
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelViewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelViewMat )
    glUniformMatrix3fv( normalMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, ToMat33(modelViewMat) )
    glBindVertexArray( tetVAObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, len(tetPosData) )

    # draw icosahedron
    icoMaterialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    modelViewMat = Multiply(viewMat, icoModelMat)
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelViewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelViewMat )
    glUniformMatrix3fv( normalMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, ToMat33(modelViewMat) )
    glBindVertexArray( icoVAObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, len(icoPosData) )

    # draw cube
    cubeMaterialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    modelViewMat = Multiply(viewMat, cubeModelMat)
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelViewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelViewMat )
    glUniformMatrix3fv( normalMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, ToMat33(modelViewMat) )
    glBindVertexArray( cubeVAObj )
    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, len(cubeIndices), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, cubeIndices)
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

# representation of a uniform block
class UniformBlock:
     def __init__(self, shaderProg, name):
        self.shaderProg = shaderProg 
        self.name = name
     def Link(self, bindingPoint):
        self.bindingPoint = bindingPoint
        self.noOfUniforms = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS)
        self.maxUniformNameLen = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_MAX_LENGTH)
        self.index = glGetUniformBlockIndex(self.shaderProg, self.name)
        intData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS, intData)
        self.count = intData[0]
        self.indices = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_INDICES, self.indices)
        self.offsets = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformsiv(self.shaderProg, self.count, self.indices, GL_UNIFORM_OFFSET, self.offsets)
        self.size = 0
        strLengthData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        arraysizeData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        typeData = np.zeros(1, dtype='uint32')
        nameData = np.chararray(self.maxUniformNameLen+1)
        self.namemap = {}
        self.dataSize = 0 
        for inx in range(0, len(self.indices)):
            glGetActiveUniform( self.shaderProg, self.indices[inx], self.maxUniformNameLen, strLengthData, arraysizeData,     typeData, nameData.data )
            name = nameData.tostring()[:strLengthData[0]]
            self.namemap[name] = inx
            self.dataSize = max(self.dataSize, self.offsets[inx] + arraysizeData * 16) 
        glUniformBlockBinding(self.shaderProg, self.index, self.bindingPoint)
        print('\nuniform block %s size:%4d' % (self.name, self.dataSize))
        for uName in self.namemap:
            print( '    %-40s index:%2d    offset:%4d' % (uName, self.indices[self.namemap[uName]], self.offsets    [self.namemap[uName]]) ) 

# representation of a uniform block buffer
class UniformBlockBuffer:
    def __init__(self, ub):
        self.namemap = ub.namemap
        self.offsets = ub.offsets
        self.bindingPoint = ub.bindingPoint
        self.object = glGenBuffers(1)
        self.dataSize = ub.dataSize
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.zeros(self.dataSize//4, dtype='float32')
        glBufferData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.dataSize, dataArray, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW)
    def BindToTarget(self):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        glBindBufferBase(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.bindingPoint, self.object)
    def BindDataFloat(self, name, dataArr):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.array(dataArr, dtype='float32')
        glBufferSubData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.offsets[self.namemap[name]], len(dataArr)*4, dataArray)


def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def Multiply(matA, matB):
    matC = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        for i1 in range(0, 4):
            matC[i0,i1] = matB[i0,0] * matA[0,i1] + matB[i0,1] * matA[1,i1] + matB[i0,2] * matA[2,i1] + matB[i0,3] * matA    [3,i1]    
    return matC

def ToMat33(mat44):
    mat33 = np.matrix(np.identity(3), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 3): mat33[i0, i1] = mat44[i0, i1]
    return mat33

def TransformVec4(vecA,mat44):
    vecB = np.zeros(4, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        vecB[i0] = vecA[0] * mat44[0,i0] + vecA[1] * mat44[1,i0] + vecA[2] * mat44[2,i0]  + vecA[3] * mat44[3,i0]
    return vecB

def Perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

def AddToBuffer( buffer, data, count=1 ): 
    for inx_c in range(0, count):
        for inx_s in range(0, len(data)): buffer.append( data[inx_s] ) 

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define tetrahedron vertex array opject
tetPts = [ (0.0, 0.0, 1.0), (0.0, -sin120, -0.5), (sin120 * sin120, 0.5 * sin120, -0.5), (-sin120 * sin120, 0.5 * sin120,     -0.5) ]
tetCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], ]
tetInxdices = [ 0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3, 0, 3, 1, 1, 3, 2 ]
tetPosData = []
for inx in tetInxdices: AddToBuffer( tetPosData, tetPts[inx] )
tetNVData = []
for inx_nv in range(0, len(tetInxdices) // 3):
    nv = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
    for inx_p in range(0, 3): 
        for inx_s in range(0, 3): nv[inx_s] += tetPts[ tetInxdices[inx_nv*3 + inx_p] ][inx_s]
    AddToBuffer( tetNVData, nv, 3 )
tetColData = []
for inx_col in range(0, len(tetInxdices) // 3): AddToBuffer( tetColData, tetCol[inx_col % len(tetCol)], 3 )
tetVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, tetPosData), (3, tetNVData), (3, tetColData) ] )

# define icosahedron vertex array opject
icoPts = [
    ( 0.000,  0.000,  1.000), ( 0.894,  0.000,  0.447), ( 0.276,  0.851,  0.447), (-0.724,  0.526,  0.447),
    (-0.724, -0.526,  0.447), ( 0.276, -0.851,  0.447), ( 0.724,  0.526, -0.447), (-0.276,  0.851, -0.447), 
    (-0.894,  0.000, -0.447), (-0.276, -0.851, -0.447), ( 0.724, -0.526, -0.447), ( 0.000,  0.000, -1.000) ]
icoCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
icoIndices = [
  2,  0,  1,  3,  0,  2,  4,  0,  3,  5,  0,  4,  1,  0,  5, 11,  7,  6, 11,  8,  7, 11,  9,  8, 11, 10,  9, 11,  6, 10, 
  1,  6,  2,  2,  7,  3,  3,  8,  4,  4,  9,  5,  5, 10,  1,  2,  6,  7,  3,  7,  8,  4,  8,  9,  5,  9, 10,  1, 10,  6  ]
icoPosData = []
for inx in icoIndices: AddToBuffer( icoPosData, icoPts[inx] )
icoNVData = []
for inx in icoIndices: AddToBuffer( icoNVData, icoPts[inx] )
#for inx_nv in range(0, len(icoIndices) // 3):
#    nv = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
#    for inx_p in range(0, 3): 
#        for inx_s in range(0, 3): nv[inx_s] += icoPts[ icoIndices[inx_nv*3 + inx_p] ][inx_s]
#    AddToBuffer( icoNVData, nv, 3 )
icoColData = []
for inx_col in range(0, len(icoIndices) // 3): AddToBuffer( icoColData, icoCol[inx_col % len(icoCol)], 3 )
icoVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, icoPosData), (3, icoNVData), (3, icoColData) ] )

# define cube vertex array opject
cubePts = [
    (-1.0, -1.0,  1.0), ( 1.0, -1.0,  1.0), ( 1.0,  1.0,  1.0), (-1.0,  1.0,  1.0),
    (-1.0, -1.0, -1.0), ( 1.0, -1.0, -1.0), ( 1.0,  1.0, -1.0), (-1.0,  1.0, -1.0) ]
cubeCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
cubeHlpInx = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6, 2, 5, 4, 7, 6, 4, 0, 3, 7, 3, 2, 6, 7, 1, 0, 4, 5 ] 
cubePosData = []
for inx in cubeHlpInx: AddToBuffer( cubePosData, cubePts[inx] )
cubeNVData = []
for inx_nv in range(0, len(cubeHlpInx) // 4):
    nv = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
    for inx_p in range(0, 4):
        for inx_s in range(0, 3): nv[inx_s] += cubePts[ cubeHlpInx[inx_nv*4 + inx_p] ][inx_s]
    AddToBuffer( cubeNVData, nv, 4 )
cubeColData = []
for inx_col in range(0, 6):
    AddToBuffer( cubeColData, cubeCol[inx_col % len(cubeCol)], 4 )
cubeIndices = []
for inx in range(0, 6):
    for inx_s in [0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3]: cubeIndices.append( inx * 4 + inx_s )
cubeVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, cubePosData), (3, cubeNVData), (3, cubeColData) ] )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'ibub.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'ibub.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
# get unifor locations
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
modelViewMatLocation  = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelViewMat44")
normalMatLocation     = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_normalMat33")
# linke uniform blocks
ubMaterial = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_material")
ubLightSource = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_lightSource")
ubMaterial.Link(1)
ubLightSource.Link(2)

# create uniform block buffers
lightSourceBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubLightSource)
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.ambient', [0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.diffuse', [0.4, 0.4, 0.4, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.specular', [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0])

tetMaterialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
tetMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.3])
tetMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.5])
tetMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.7])

icoMaterialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.1])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.2])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.7])

cubeMaterialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
cubeMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.5])
cubeMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.3])
cubeMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.7])

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()
 

Gebruik van een model-, beeld- en projectiematrix in OGL 4.0 GLSL

Een eenvoudig OGL 4.0 GLSL-shader-programma dat het gebruik van een model-, weergave- en projectiematrix toont. Het programma wordt uitgevoerd met een phyton-script. Om het script uit te voeren, moeten PyOpenGL en NumPy zijn geïnstalleerd.

  • Projectiematrix: de projectiematrix beschrijft het in kaart brengen van een pinhole-camera van 3D-punten in de wereld tot 2D-punten van de viewport. In dit voorbeeld gebruiken we een projectiematrix met een gezichtsveld van 90 graden.

  • Beeldmatrix: de beeldmatrix bepaalt de oogpositie en de kijkrichting in de scène. In dit voorbeeld bewegen we cirkelvormig rond de scène met een kijkrichting naar het midden van de scène.

  • Modelmatrix: de modelmatrix definieert de locatie en de relatieve grootte van een object in de scène. In dit voorbeeld verplaatsen de modelmatrices de objecten op en neer.

Vertex shader

mvp.vet

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inCol;

out vec3 vertCol;

uniform mat4 projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 viewMat44;
uniform mat4 modelMat44;

void main()
{
    vertCol = inCol;
    vec4 modolPos = modelMat44 * vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
    vec4 viewPos = viewMat44 * modolPos;
    gl_Position = projectionMat44 * viewPos;
}
 

Fragment shader

mvp.frag

#version 400

in vec3 vertCol;

out vec4 fragColor;

void main()
{
    fragColor = vec4( vertCol, 1.0 );
}
 

Phyton-script

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    currentTime = time()
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = perspective( 90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = Translate( np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32'), np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -8.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [10.0, CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ), 0.0] )
    
    # set up tetrahedron model matrix
    tetModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    tetModelMat = RotateX( tetModelMat, -90.0 )
    tetModelMat = Scale( tetModelMat, np.repeat( 2.0, 3 ) )
    tetModelMat = Translate( tetModelMat, np.array( [-2.0, 0.0, CalcMove(currentTime, 6.0, [-1.0, 1.0])] ) )

    # set up icosahedron model matrix
    icoModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    icoModelMat = RotateX( icoModelMat, -90.0 )
    icoModelMat = Scale( icoModelMat, np.repeat( 2.0, 3 ) )
    icoModelMat = Translate( icoModelMat, np.array( [2.0, 0.0, CalcMove(currentTime, 6.0, [1.0, -1.0])] ) )
 
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( viewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, viewMat )
    
    # draw tetrahedron
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, tetModelMat )
    glBindVertexArray( tetVAObj )
    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, len(tetIndices), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, tetIndices)

    # draw tetrahedron
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, icoModelMat )
    glBindVertexArray( icoVAObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, len(icoPosData) )
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
       
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array opject
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define tetrahedron vertex array opject
sin120 = 0.8660254
tetPposData = [ 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, -sin120, -0.5, sin120 * sin120, 0.5 * sin120, -0.5, -sin120 * sin120, 0.5 * sin120,     -0.5 ]
tetColData = [ 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, ]
tetIndices = [ 0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3, 0, 3, 1, 1, 3, 2 ]
tetVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, tetPposData), (3, tetColData) ] )
tetInxArr = np.array( tetIndices, dtype='uint' )

# define icosahedron vertex array opject
icoPts = [
    [ 0.000,  0.000,  1.000], [ 0.894,  0.000,  0.447], [ 0.276,  0.851,  0.447], [-0.724,  0.526,  0.447],
    [-0.724, -0.526,  0.447], [ 0.276, -0.851,  0.447], [ 0.724,  0.526, -0.447], [-0.276,  0.851, -0.447], 
    [-0.894,  0.000, -0.447], [-0.276, -0.851, -0.447], [ 0.724, -0.526, -0.447], [ 0.000,  0.000, -1.000] ]
icoCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
icoIndices = [
  2,  0,  1,  3,  0,  2,  4,  0,  3,  5,  0,  4,  1,  0,  5, 11,  7,  6, 11,  8,  7, 11,  9,  8, 11, 10,  9, 11,  6, 10, 
  1,  6,  2,  2,  7,  3,  3,  8,  4,  4,  9,  5,  5, 10,  1,  2,  6,  7,  3,  7,  8,  4,  8,  9,  5,  9, 10,  1, 10,  6  ]
icoPosData = []
for inx in icoIndices:
    for inx_s in range(0, 3):
        icoPosData.append( icoPts[inx][inx_s] )
icoColData = []
for inx in range(0, len(icoPosData) // 9):
    inx_col = inx % len(icoCol)
    for inx_p in range(0, 3):
        for inx_s in range(0, 3):
                icoColData.append( icoCol[inx_col][inx_s] )
icoVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, icoPosData), (3, icoColData) ] )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'mvp.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'mvp.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "projectionMat44")
viewMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "viewMat44")
modelMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "modelMat44")

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()