Signals and slots are used for communication between objects. The signals and slots mechanism is a central feature of Qt. In GUI programming, when we change one widget, we often want another widget to be notified. More generally, we want objects of any kind to be able to communicate with one another. Signals are emitted by objects when they change their state in a way that may be interesting to other objects. Slots can be used for receiving signals, but they are also normal member functions.
Official documentation on this topic can be found here.