Erlang Language Lists


A list in Erlang is a sequence of zero or more Erlang terms, implemented as a singly linked list. Each element in the list can be any type of term (any data type).

1> [1,2,3].
2> [wow,1,{a,b}].     

The list's head is the first element of the list.

The list's tail is the remainder of the list (without the head). It is also a list.
You can use hd/1 and tl/1 or match against [H|T] to get the head and tail of the list.

3> hd([1,2,3]).
4> tl([1,2,3]).
5> [H|T] = [1,2,3].
6> H.
7> T.

Prepending an element to a list

8> [new | [1,2,3]].

Concatenating lists

9> [concat,this] ++ [to,this].


In Erlang, strings are not a separate data type: they're just lists of integers representing ASCII or Unicode code points:

> [97,98,99].
> [97,98,99] =:= "abc".
> hd("ABC").

When the Erlang shell is going to print a list, it tries to guess whether you actually meant it to be a string. You can turn that behaviour off by calling shell:strings(false):

> [8].
> shell:strings(false).
> [8].

In the above example, the integer 8 is interpreted as the ASCII control character for backspace, which the shell considers to be a "valid" character in a string.