The intrinsic `pack`

function packs an array into a vector, selecting elements based on a given mask. The function has two forms

```
PACK(array, mask)
PACK(array, mask, vector)
```

(that is, the `vector`

argument is optional).

In both cases `array`

is an array, and `mask`

of logical type and conformable with `array`

(either a scalar or an array of the same shape).

In the first case the result is rank-1 array of type and type parameters of `array`

with the number of elements being the number of true elements in the mask.

```
integer, allocatable :: positive_values(:)
integer :: values(5) = [2, -1, 3, -2, 5]
positive_values = PACK(values, values>0)
```

results in `positive_values`

being the array `[2, 3, 5]`

.

With the `vector`

rank-1 argument present the result is now the size of `vector`

(whcih must have at least as many elements as there are true values in `mask`

.

The effect with `vector`

is to return that array with the initial elements of that array overwritten by the masked elements of `array`

. For example

```
integer, allocatable :: positive_values(:)
integer :: values(5) = [2, -1, 3, -2, 5]
positive_values = PACK(values, values>0, [10,20,30,40,50])
```

results in `positive_values`

being the array `[2,3,5,40,50]`

.

It should be noted that, regardless of the shape of the argument `array`

the result is always a rank-1 array.

In addition to selecting the elements of an array meeting a masking condition it is often useful to determine the indices for which the masking condition is met. This common idiom can be expressed as

```
integer, allocatable :: indices(:)
integer i
indices = PACK([(i, i=1,5)], [2, -1, 3, -2, 5]>0)
```

resulting in `indices`

being the array `[1,3,5]`

.

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