Intel x86 Assembly Language & Microarchitecture Wake up all the processors


Example

This example will wake up every Application Processor (AP) and make them, along with the Bootstrap Processor (BSP), display their LAPIC ID.

; Assemble boot sector and insert it into a 1.44MiB floppy image
;
; nasm -f bin boot.asm -o boot.bin
; dd if=/dev/zero of=disk.img bs=512 count=2880
; dd if=boot.bin of=disk.img bs=512 conv=notrunc

BITS 16
; Bootloader starts at segment:offset 07c0h:0000h
section bootloader, vstart=0000h
jmp 7c0h:__START__

__START__:
 mov ax, cs
 mov ds, ax
 mov es, ax
 mov ss, ax
 xor sp, sp
 cld

 ;Clear screen
 mov ax, 03h
 int 10h

 ;Set limit of 4GiB and base 0 for FS and GS
 call 7c0h:unrealmode

 ;Enable the APIC
 call enable_lapic

 ;Move the payload to the expected address
 mov si, payload_start_abs
 mov cx, payload_end-payload + 1
 mov di, 400h                 ;7c0h:400h = 8000h
 rep movsb


 ;Wakeup the other APs

 ;INIT
 call lapic_send_init
 mov cx, WAIT_10_ms
 call us_wait

 ;SIPI
 call lapic_send_sipi
 mov cx, WAIT_200_us
 call us_wait

 ;SIPI
 call lapic_send_sipi

 ;Jump to the payload
 jmp 0000h:8000h

 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll

 ;CX = Wait (in ms) Max 65536 us (=0 on input)
 us_wait:
  mov dx, 80h               ;POST Diagnose port, 1us per IO
  xor si, si
  rep outsb

  ret

  WAIT_10_ms     EQU 10000
  WAIT_200_us    EQU 200

 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll


 enable_lapic:

  ;Enable the APIC globally
  ;On P6 CPU once this flag is set to 0, it cannot be set back to 16
  ;Without an HARD RESET
  mov ecx, IA32_APIC_BASE_MSR
  rdmsr
  or ah, 08h        ;bit11: APIC GLOBAL Enable/Disable
  wrmsr

  ;Mask off lower 12 bits to get the APIC base address
  and ah, 0f0h
  mov DWORD [APIC_BASE], eax

  ;Newer processors enables the APIC through the Spurious Interrupt Vector register
  mov ecx, DWORD [fs: eax + APIC_REG_SIV]
  or ch, 01h                                ;bit8: APIC SOFTWARE enable/disable
  mov DWORD [fs: eax+APIC_REG_SIV], ecx

  ret

 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll

 lapic_send_sipi:
  mov eax, DWORD [APIC_BASE]

  ;Destination field is set to 0 has we will use a shorthand
  xor ebx, ebx
  mov DWORD [fs: eax+APIC_REG_ICR_HIGH], ebx

  ;Vector: 08h (Will make the CPU execute instruction ad address 08000h)
  ;Delivery mode: Startup
  ;Destination mode: ignored (0)
  ;Level: ignored (1)
  ;Trigger mode: ignored (0)
  ;Shorthand: All excluding self (3)
  mov ebx, 0c4608h
  mov DWORD [fs: eax+APIC_REG_ICR_LOW], ebx  ;Writing the low DWORD sent the IPI

  ret

  ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll

 lapic_send_init:
  mov eax, DWORD [APIC_BASE]

  ;Destination field is set to 0 has we will use a shorthand
  xor ebx, ebx
  mov DWORD [fs: eax+APIC_REG_ICR_HIGH], ebx

  ;Vector: 00h
  ;Delivery mode: Startup
  ;Destination mode: ignored (0)
  ;Level: ignored (1)
  ;Trigger mode: ignored (0)
  ;Shorthand: All excluding self (3)
  mov ebx, 0c4500h
  mov DWORD [fs: eax+APIC_REG_ICR_LOW], ebx  ;Writing the low DWORD sent the IPI

  ret

 IA32_APIC_BASE_MSR    EQU    1bh

 APIC_REG_SIV        EQU    0f0h

 APIC_REG_ICR_LOW    EQU 300h
 APIC_REG_ICR_HIGH    EQU 310h

 APIC_REG_ID        EQU 20h

 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll

 APIC_BASE            dd     00h

 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll

unrealmode:
 lgdt [cs:GDT]

 cli

 mov eax, cr0
 or ax, 01h
 mov cr0, eax

 mov bx, 08h
 mov fs, bx
 mov gs, bx

 and ax, 0fffeh
 mov cr0, eax

 sti

 ;IMPORTAT: This call is FAR!
 ;So it can be called from everywhere
 retf

 GDT:
    dw 0fh
    dd GDT + 7c00h
    dw 00h

    dd 0000ffffh
    dd 00cf9200h

 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll
 ;Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll  Ll

payload_start_abs:
; payload starts at segment:offset 0800h:0000h
section payload, vstart=0000h, align=1
 payload:

  ;IMPORTANT NOTE: Here we are in a "new" CPU every state we set before is no
  ;more present here (except for the BSP, but we handler every processor with
  ;the same code).
 jmp 800h: __RESTART__

 __RESTART__:
  mov ax, cs
  mov ds, ax
  xor sp, sp
  cld

  ;IMPORTANT: We can't use the stack yet. Every CPU is pointing to the same stack!

  ;Get an unique id
  mov ax, WORD [counter]
  .try:
    mov bx, ax
    inc bx
    lock cmpxchg WORD [counter], bx
   jnz .try

  mov cx, ax            ;Save this unique id

  ;Stack segment = CS + unique id * 1000
  shl ax, 12
  mov bx, cs
  add ax, bx
  mov ss, ax

  ;Text buffer
  push 0b800h
  pop es

  ;Set unreal mode again
  call 7c0h:unrealmode

  ;Use GS for old variables
  mov ax, 7c0h
  mov gs, ax

  ;Calculate text row
  mov ax, cx
  mov bx, 160d           ;80 * 2
  mul bx
  mov di, ax

  ;Get LAPIC id
  mov ebx, DWORD [gs:APIC_BASE]
  mov edx, DWORD [fs:ebx + APIC_REG_ID]
  shr edx, 24d
  call itoa8

  cli
  hlt

  ;DL = Number
  ;DI = ptr to text buffer
  itoa8:
    mov bx, dx
    shr bx, 0fh
    mov al, BYTE [bx +  digits]
    mov ah, 09h
    stosw

    mov bx, dx
    and bx, 0fh
    mov al, BYTE [bx +  digits]
    mov ah, 09h
    stosw

    ret

  digits db "0123456789abcdef"
  counter dw 0

 payload_end:



; Boot signature is at physical offset 01feh of
; the boot sector
section bootsig, start=01feh
 dw 0aa55h

There are two major steps to perform:

1. Waking the APs
This is achieved by inssuing a INIT-SIPI-SIPI (ISS) sequence to the all the APs.

The BSP that will send the ISS sequence using as destination the shorthand All excluding self, thereby targeting all the APs.

A SIPI (Startup Inter Processor Interrupt) is ignored by all the CPUs that are waked by the time they receive it, thus the second SIPI is ignored if the first one suffices to wake up the target processors. It is advised by Intel for compatibility reason.

A SIPI contains a vector, this is similar in meaning, but absolutely different in practice, to an interrupt vector (a.k.a. interrupt number).
The vector is an 8 bit number, of value V (represented as vv in base 16), that makes the CPU starts executing instructions at the physical address 0vv000h.
We will call 0vv000h the Wake-up address (WA).
The WA is forced at a 4KiB (or page) boundary.

We will use 08h as V, the WA is then 08000h, 400h bytes after the bootloader.

This gives control to the APs.

2. Initializing and differentiating the APs
It is necessary to have an executable code at the WA. The bootloader is at 7c00h, so we need to relocate some code at page boundary.

The first thing to remember when writing the payload is that any access to a shared resource must be protected or differentiated.
A common shared resource is the stack, if we initialize the stack naively, every APs will end up using the same stack!

The first step is then using different stack addresses, thus differentiating the stack.
We accomplish that by assigning an unique number, zero based, for each CPU. This number, we will call it index, is used for differentiating the stack and the line were the CPU will write its APIC ID.

The stack address for each CPU is 800h:(index * 1000h) giving each AP 64KiB of stack.
The line number for each CPU is index, the pointer into the text buffer is thus 80 * 2 * index.

To generate the index a lock cmpxchg is used to atomically increment and return a WORD.

Final notes

  • A write to port 80h is used to generate a delay of 1 µs.
  • unrealmode is a far routine, so it can be called after the wake up too.
  • The BSP also jump to the WA.

Screenshot

From Bochs with 8 processors

Screenshot with eight processors