arduino MIDI Clock Generation


Example

// This is a MiDI clk generator.  This takes a #defined BPM and 
// makes the appropriate clk rate.  The queue is used to let other messages 
// through, but allows a clock to go immediately to reduce clock jitter

#define QUEUE_DEPTH 128
#define BPM 121
#define MIDI_SYSRT_CLK 0xF8

// clock tracking and calculation
unsigned long lastClock;
unsigned long captClock;
unsigned long clk_period_us;

// Queue Logic for storing messages
int headQ = 0;
int tailQ = 0;
unsigned char tx_queue[QUEUE_DEPTH];

void setup() {
    //  Set MIDI baud rate:
    Serial.begin(31250);
    clk_period_us = 60000000 / (24 * BPM);
    lastClock = micros();
}

// getQDepth checks for roll over.  Folks have told me this 
// is not required.  Feel free to experiment.
int getQDepth() {
int depth = 0;
    if (headQ < tailQ) {
        depth = QUEUE_DEPTH - (tailQ - headQ);
    } else {
        depth = headQ - tailQ;
    }
    return depth;
}

void addQueue (unsigned char myByte) {
    int depth = 0;
    depth = getQDepth();

    if (depth < (QUEUE_DEPTH-2)) {
        tx_queue[headQ] = myByte;
        headQ++;
        headQ = headQ % QUEUE_DEPTH; // Always keep the headQ limited between 0 and 127
    }
}

unsigned char deQueue() {
    unsigned char myByte;
    myByte = tx_queue[tailQ];
    tailQ++;
    tailQ = tailQ % QUEUE_DEPTH;  // Keep this tailQ contained within a limit
    // Now that we dequeed the byte, it must be sent. 
    return myByte;
}

void loop() {
    captClock = micros();
    
    if (lastClock > captClock) {
        // we have a roll over condition - Again, maybe we don't need to do this.
        if (clk_period_us <= (4294967295 - (lastClock - captClock))) {
            // Add a the ideal clock period for this BPM to the last measurement value
            lastClock = lastClock + clk_period_us;
            // Send a clock, bypasing the transmit queue
            Serial.write(MIDI_SYSRT_CLK);
        }
    } else if (clk_period_us <= captClock-lastClock) {
        // Basically the same two commands above, but not within a roll over check
        lastClock = lastClock + clk_period_us;
        // Send a clock, bypasing the transmit queue
        Serial.write(MIDI_SYSRT_CLK);
    }

    if (getQDepth>0) {
        Serial.write(deQueue());
    }
}

// The little function that gets called each time loop is called.  
// This is automated somwhere in the Arduino code.
void serialEvent() {
  if (Serial.available()) {
    // get the new byte:
    addQueue((unsigned char)Serial.read());;
  }
}