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This sixth iteration of the C# language is provided by the Roslyn compiler. This compiler came out with version 4.6 of the .NET Framework, however it can generate code in a backward compatible manner to allow targeting earlier framework versions. C# version 6 code can be compiled in a fully backwards compatible manner to .NET 4.0. It can also be used for earlier frameworks, however some features that require additional framework support may not function correctly.

LINQ is an acronym which stands for Language INtegrated Query. It is a concept which integrates a query language by offering a consistent model for working with data across various kinds of data sources and formats; you use the same basic coding patterns to query and transform data in XML documents, SQL databases, ADO.NET Datasets, .NET collections, and any other format for which a LINQ provider is available.

Expression Trees are Expressions arranged in a treelike data structure. Each node in the tree is a representation of an expression, an expression being code. An In-Memory representation of a Lambda expression would be an Expression tree, which holds the actual elements (i.e. code) of the query, but not its result. Expression trees make the structure of a lambda expression transparent and explicit.

Lambda expressions provide a clear and concise way of implementing a single-method interface using an expression. They allow you to reduce the amount of code you have to create and maintain. While similar to anonymous classes, they have no type information by themselves. Type inference needs to happen.

Method references implement functional interfaces using existing methods rather than expressions. They belong to the lambda family as well.

An interface is a reference type, similar to a class, which can be declared by using interface keyword. Interfaces can contain only constants, method signatures, default methods, static methods, and nested types. Method bodies exist only for default methods and static methods. Like abstract classes, Interfaces cannot be instantiated—they can only be implemented by classes or extended by other interfaces. Interface is a common way to achieve full abstraction in Java.

Objects have states and behaviors. Example: A dog has states - color, name, breed as well as behaviors – wagging the tail, barking, eating. An object is an instance of a class.

Class − A class can be defined as a template/blueprint that describes the behavior/state that the object of its type support.


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