SQL injection is a kind of attack that allows a malicious user to modify the SQL query, adding unwanted commands to it. For example, the following code is vulnerable:
// Do not use this vulnerable code! $sql = 'SELECT name, email, user_level FROM users WHERE userID = ' . $_GET['user']; $conn->query($sql);
This allows any user of this script to modify our database basically at will. For example consider the following query string:
This makes our example query look like this
SELECT name, email, user_level FROM users WHERE userID = 0; TRUNCATE TABLE users;
While this is an extreme example (most SQL injection attacks do not aim to delete data, nor do most PHP query execution functions support multi-query), this is an example of how a SQL injection attack can be made possible by the careless assembly of the query. Unfortunately, attacks like this are very common, and are highly effective due to coders who fail to take proper precautions to protect their data.
To prevent SQL injection from occurring, prepared statements are the recommended solution. Instead of concatenating user data directly to the query, a placeholder is used instead. The data is then sent separately, which means there is no chance of the SQL engine confusing user data for a set of instructions.
While the topic here is PDO, please note that the PHP MySQLi extension also supports prepared statements
PDO supports two kinds of placeholders (placeholders cannot be used for column or table names, only values):
Named placeholders. A colon(
:), followed by a distinct name (eg.
// using named placeholders $sql = 'SELECT name, email, user_level FROM users WHERE userID = :user'; $prep = $conn->prepare($sql); $prep->execute(['user' => $_GET['user']]); // associative array $result = $prep->fetchAll();
Traditional SQL positional placeholders, represented as
// using question-mark placeholders $sql = 'SELECT name, user_level FROM users WHERE userID = ? AND user_level = ?'; $prep = $conn->prepare($sql); $prep->execute([$_GET['user'], $_GET['user_level']]); // indexed array $result = $prep->fetchAll();
If ever you need to dynamically change table or column names, know that this is at your own security risks and a bad practice. Though, it can be done by string concatenation. One way to improve security of such queries is to set a table of allowed values and compare the value you want to concatenate to this table.
Be aware that it is important to set connection charset through DSN only, otherwise your application could be prone to an obscure vulnerability if some odd encoding is used. For PDO versions prior to 5.3.6 setting charset through DSN is not available and thus the only option is to set
PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES attribute to
false on the connection right after it’s created.
This causes PDO to use the underlying DBMS’s native prepared statements instead of just emulating it.