Scala Language Type Variance Covariance on an invariant trait


Example

There is also a way to have a single method accept a covariant argument, instead of having the whole trait covariant. This may be necessary because you would like to use T in a contravariant position, but still have it covariant.

trait LocalVariance[T]{
  /// ??? throws a NotImplementedError
  def produce: T = ???
  // the implicit evidence provided by the compiler confirms that S is a
  // subtype of T.
  def handle[S](s: S)(implicit evidence: S <:< T) = {
    // and we can use the evidence to convert s into t.
    val t: T = evidence(s)
    ???
  }
}

trait A {}
trait B extends A {}

object Test {
  val lv = new LocalVariance[A] {}

  // now we can pass a B instead of an A.
  lv.handle(new B {})
}