Tutorial by Topics



Git is a free, distributed version control system which allows programmers to keep track of code changes, via "snapshots" (commits), in its current state. Utilizing commits allows programmers to test, debug, and create new features collaboratively. All commits are kept in what is known a...
Conditional expressions, involving keywords such as if and else, provide JavaScript programs with the ability to perform different actions depending on a Boolean condition: true or false. This section covers the use of JavaScript conditionals, Boolean logic, and ternary statements. if (conditi...
The SELECT statement is at the heart of most SQL queries. It defines what result set should be returned by the query, and is almost always used in conjunction with the FROM clause, which defines what part(s) of the database should be queried. SELECT [DISTINCT] [column1] [, [column2] ... ] F...
NSJSONSerialization.JSONObjectWithData(jsonData, options: NSJSONReadingOptions) // Returns an Object from jsonData. This method throws on failure. NSJSONSerialization.dataWithJSONObject(jsonObject, options: NSJSONWritingOptions) // Returns NSData from a JSON object. Pass in NSJSONWritingOptions....
Like structs and unlike classes, enums are value types and are copied instead of referenced when passed around. For more information about enums, see The Swift Programming Language.
Ruby on Rails (RoR), or Rails, is an open-source popular web application framework. Rails uses Ruby, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to create a web application that runs on a web server. Rails uses the model-view-controller (MVC) pattern and provides a fullstack of libraries from the database all t...
HTML provides not only plain paragraph tags, but six separate header tags to indicate headings of various sizes and thicknesses. Enumerated as heading 1 through heading 6, heading 1 has the largest and thickest text while heading 6 is the smallest and thinnest, down to the paragraph level. This topi...
for (initialization; condition; final_expression) { } for (key in object) { } for (variable of iterable) { } while (condition) { } do { } while (condition) for each (variable in object) { } // ECMAScript for XML Loops in JavaScript typically help solve problems which involve repeating ...
Functions in Python provide organized, reusable and modular code to perform a set of specific actions. Functions simplify the coding process, prevent redundant logic, and make the code easier to follow. This topic describes the declaration and utilization of functions in Python. Python has many bui...
Decorator functions are software design patterns. They dynamically alter the functionality of a function, method, or class without having to directly use subclasses or change the source code of the decorated function. When used correctly, decorators can become powerful tools in the development proce...
new Promise( /* executor function: */ function(resolve, reject) { }) promise.then(onFulfilled[, onRejected]) promise.catch(onRejected) Promise.resolve(resolution) Promise.reject(reason) Promise.all(iterable) Promise.race(iterable) Promises are part of the ECMAScript 2015 specificatio...
VersionReleaseRelease Date1.01984-01-0121986-01-0131987-01-013.51990-01-0141992-01-014.2c1994-01-015.0Volume 81996-12-015.1Volume 91997-05-015.1.1R9.11997-05-025.2R101998-03-015.2.1R10.11998-03-025.3R111999-01-015.3.1R11.11999-11-016.0R122000-11-016.1R12.12001-06-016.5R132002-06-016.5.1R13SP22003...
This is a set of examples highlighting basic usage of SQL Server. VersionRelease DateSQL Server 20162016-06-01SQL Server 20142014-03-18SQL Server 20122011-10-11SQL Server 2008 R22010-04-01SQL Server 20082008-08-06SQL Server 20052005-11-01SQL Server 20002000-11-01
As one of the most basic functions in programming, loops are an important piece to nearly every programming language. Loops enable developers to set certain portions of their code to repeat through a number of loops which are referred to as iterations. This topic covers using multiple types of loops...
random.seed(a=None, version=2) (version is only avaiable for python 3.x) random.getstate() random.setstate(state) random.randint(a, b) random.randrange(stop) random.randrange(start, stop, step=1) random.choice(seq) random.shuffle(x, random=random.random) random.sample(population, k) ...
git log [options] [revision range] [[--] path...] Parameter          Explanation-q, --quietQuiet, suppresses diff output--sourceShows source of commit--use-mailmapUse mail map file (changes user info for committing user)--decorate[=...]Decorate options--L <n,m:file>Show log for specif...
Protocols are a way of specifying how to use an object. They describe a set of properties and methods which a class, structure, or enum should provide, although protocols pose no restrictions on the implementation. A Swift protocol is a collection of requirements that conforming types must imp...

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