Go Concurrency Stopping goroutines


package main

import (

func main() {
    // The WaitGroup lets the main goroutine wait for all other goroutines
    // to terminate. However, this is no implicit in Go. The WaitGroup must
    // be explicitely incremented prior to the execution of any goroutine 
    // (i.e. before the `go` keyword) and it must be decremented by calling
    // wg.Done() at the end of every goroutine (typically via the `defer` keyword). 
    wg := sync.WaitGroup{}

    // The stop channel is an unbuffered channel that is closed when the main
    // thread wants all other goroutines to terminate (there is no way to 
    // interrupt another goroutine in Go). Each goroutine must multiplex its
    // work with the stop channel to guarantee liveness.
    stopCh := make(chan struct{})

    for i := 0; i < 5; i++ {
        // It is important that the WaitGroup is incremented before we start
        // the goroutine (and not within the goroutine) because the scheduler
        // makes no guarantee that the goroutine starts execution prior to 
        // the main goroutine calling wg.Wait().
        go func(i int, stopCh <-chan struct{}) {
            // The defer keyword guarantees that the WaitGroup count is 
            // decremented when the goroutine exits.
            defer wg.Done()

            log.Printf("started goroutine %d", i)

            select {
            // Since we never send empty structs on this channel we can 
            // take the return of a receive on the channel to mean that the
            // channel has been closed (recall that receive never blocks on
            // closed channels).   
            case <-stopCh:
                log.Printf("stopped goroutine %d", i)
        }(i, stopCh)

    time.Sleep(time.Second * 5)
    log.Printf("stopping goroutines")
    log.Printf("all goroutines stopped")