Scala Language Collections List and Vector Cheatsheet


Example

It is now a best-practice to use Vector instead of List because the implementations have better performance Performance characteristics can be found here. Vector can be used wherever List is used.

List creation

List[Int]()         // Declares an empty list of type Int
List.empty[Int]     // Uses `empty` method to declare empty list of type Int
Nil                 // A list of type Nothing that explicitly has nothing in it

List(1, 2, 3)       // Declare a list with some elements
1 :: 2 :: 3 :: Nil  // Chaining element prepending to an empty list, in a LISP-style

Take element

List(1, 2, 3).headOption // Some(1)
List(1, 2, 3).head       // 1

List(1, 2, 3).lastOption // Some(3)
List(1, 2, 3).last       // 3, complexity is O(n)

List(1, 2, 3)(1)         // 2, complexity is O(n)
List(1, 2, 3)(3)         // java.lang.IndexOutOfBoundsException: 4

Prepend Elements

0 :: List(1, 2, 3)       // List(0, 1, 2, 3)

Append Elements

List(1, 2, 3) :+ 4       // List(1, 2, 3, 4), complexity is O(n)

Join (Concatenate) Lists

List(1, 2) ::: List(3, 4) // List(1, 2, 3, 4)
List.concat(List(1,2), List(3, 4)) // List(1, 2, 3, 4)
List(1, 2) ++ List(3, 4)  // List(1, 2, 3, 4)

Common operations

List(1, 2, 3).find(_ == 3)                     // Some(3)
List(1, 2, 3).map(_ * 2)                       // List(2, 4, 6)
List(1, 2, 3).filter(_ % 2 == 1)               // List(1, 3)
List(1, 2, 3).fold(0)((acc, i) => acc + i * i) // 1 * 1 + 2 * 2 + 3 * 3 = 14
List(1, 2, 3).foldLeft("Foo")(_ + _.toString)  // "Foo123"
List(1, 2, 3).foldRight("Foo")(_ + _.toString) // "123Foo"