Tutorial by Topics: def



Default Method introduced in Java 8, allows developers to add new methods to an interface without breaking the existing implementations of this interface. It provides flexibility to allow the interface to define an implementation which will be used as default when a class which implements that interface fails to provide an implementation of that method.

In C, some expressions yield undefined behavior. The standard explicitly chooses to not define how a compiler should behave if it encounters such an expression. As a result, a compiler is free to do whatever it sees fit and may produce useful results, unexpected results, or even crash.

Code that invokes UB may work as intended on a specific system with a specific compiler, but will likely not work on another system, or with a different compiler, compiler version or compiler settings.

What is undefined behavior (UB)? According to the ISO C++ Standard (§1.3.24, N4296), it is "behavior for which this International Standard imposes no requirements."

This means that when a program encounters UB, it is allowed to do whatever it wants. This often means a crash, but it may simply do nothing, make demons fly out of your nose, or even appear to work properly!

Needless to say, you should avoid writing code that invokes UB.

The typedef mechanism allows the creation of aliases for other types. It does not create new types. People often use typedef to improve the portability of code, to give aliases to structure or union types, or to create aliases for function (or function pointer) types.

In the C standard, typedef is classified as a 'storage class' for convenience; it occurs syntactically where storage classes such as static or extern could appear.

A defer statement pushes a function call onto a list. The list of saved calls is executed after the surrounding function returns. Defer is commonly used to simplify functions that perform various clean-up actions.

In R, tabular data is stored in data frames. This topic covers the various ways of transforming a single table.


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