Ruby Language Message Passing Through Module Composition


Example

Ruby moves up on ancestors chain of an object. This chain can contain both modules and classes. Same rules about moving up the chain apply to modules as well.

class Example
end

module Prepended
  def initialize *args
    return super :default if args.empty?
    super
  end
end

module FirstIncluded
  def foo
    :first
  end
end

module SecondIncluded
  def foo
    :second
  end
end

class SubExample < Example
  prepend Prepended
  include FirstIncluded
  include SecondIncluded

  def initialize data = :subexample
    puts data
  end
end

SubExample.ancestors # => [Prepended, SubExample, SecondIncluded, FirstIncluded, Example, Object, Kernel, BasicObject]

s = SubExample.new # => :default
s.foo # => :second