Ruby Language Instance Variables and Class Variables


Example

Let's first brush up with what are the Instance Variables: They behave more like properties for an object. They are initialized on an object creation. Instance variables are accessible through instance methods. Per Object has per instance variables. Instance Variables are not shared between objects.

Sequence class has @from, @to and @by as the instance variables.

class Sequence
    include Enumerable

    def initialize(from, to, by)
        @from = from
        @to = to
        @by = by
    end

    def each
        x = @from
        while x < @to
            yield x
            x = x + @by
        end
    end

    def *(factor)
        Sequence.new(@from*factor, @to*factor, @by*factor)
    end

    def +(offset)
        Sequence.new(@from+offset, @to+offset, @by+offset)
    end
end

object = Sequence.new(1,10,2)
object.each do |x|
    puts x
end

Output:
1
3
5
7
9

object1 = Sequence.new(1,10,3)
object1.each do |x|
    puts x
end

Output:
1
4
7

Class Variables Treat class variable same as static variables of java, which are shared among the various objects of that class. Class Variables are stored in heap memory.

class Sequence
    include Enumerable
    @@count = 0
    def initialize(from, to, by)
        @from = from
        @to = to
        @by = by
        @@count = @@count + 1
    end

    def each
        x = @from
        while x < @to
            yield x
            x = x + @by
        end
    end

    def *(factor)
        Sequence.new(@from*factor, @to*factor, @by*factor)
    end

    def +(offset)
        Sequence.new(@from+offset, @to+offset, @by+offset)
    end

    def getCount
        @@count
    end
end

object = Sequence.new(1,10,2)
object.each do |x|
    puts x
end

Output:
1
3
5
7
9

object1 = Sequence.new(1,10,3)
object1.each do |x|
    puts x
end

Output:
1
4
7

puts object1.getCount
Output: 2

Shared among object and object1.

Comparing the instance and class variables of Ruby against Java:

Class Sequence{
    int from, to, by;
    Sequence(from, to, by){// constructor method of Java is equivalent to initialize method of ruby
        this.from = from;// this.from of java is equivalent to @from indicating currentObject.from
        this.to = to;
        this.by = by;
    }
    public void each(){
        int x = this.from;//objects attributes are accessible in the context of the object.
        while x > this.to
            x = x + this.by
    }
}