Microsoft SQL ServerSQL Server Evolution through different versions (2000 - 2016)


I am using SQL Server since 2004. I started with 2000 and now I am going to use SQL Server 2016. I created tables, views, functions, triggers, stored procedures and wrote many SQL queries but I did not use many new features from subsequent versions. I googled it but unfortunately, I did not find all the features in one place. So I gathered and validated these information from different sources and put here. I am just adding the high level information for all the versions starting from 2000 to 20