Swift Language Initializers


Example

Enums can have custom init methods that can be more useful than the default init?(rawValue:). Enums can also store values as well. This can be useful for storing the values they where initialized with and retrieving that value later.

enum CompassDirection {
    case north(Int)
    case south(Int)
    case east(Int)
    case west(Int)

    init?(degrees: Int) {
        switch degrees {
        case 0...45:
            self = .north(degrees)
        case 46...135:
            self = .east(degrees)
        case 136...225:
            self = .south(degrees)
        case 226...315:
            self = .west(degrees)
        case 316...360:
            self = .north(degrees)
        default:
            return nil
        }
    }
    
    var value: Int = {
        switch self {
            case north(let degrees):
                return degrees
            case south(let degrees):
                return degrees
            case east(let degrees):
                return degrees
            case west(let degrees):
                return degrees
        }    
    }
}

Using that initializer we can do this:

var direction = CompassDirection(degrees: 0) // Returns CompassDirection.north
direction = CompassDirection(degrees: 90) // Returns CompassDirection.east
print(direction.value) //prints 90
direction = CompassDirection(degrees: 500) // Returns nil