JavaScript Behavioral Design Patterns Command


The command pattern encapsulates parameters to a method, current object state, and which method to call. It is useful to compartmentalize everything needed to call a method at a later time. It can be used to issue a "command" and decide later which piece of code to use to execute the command.

There are three components in this pattern:

  1. Command Message - the command itself, including the method name, parameters, and state
  2. Invoker - the part which instructs the command to execute its instructions. It can be a timed event, user interaction, a step in a process, callback, or any way needed to execute the command.
  3. Reciever - the target of the command execution.

Command Message as an Array

var aCommand = new Array();
aCommand.push(new Instructions().DoThis);  //Method to execute
aCommand.push("String Argument");  //string argument
aCommand.push(777);                //integer argument
aCommand.push(new Object {} );     //object argument
aCommand.push(new Array() );       //array argument

Constructor for command class

class DoThis {
    constructor( stringArg, numArg, objectArg, arrayArg ) {
        this._stringArg = stringArg;
        this._numArg = numArg;
        this._objectArg = objectArg;
        this._arrayArg = arrayArg;
    Execute() {
       var receiver = new Instructions();
       receiver.DoThis(this._stringArg, this._numArg, this._objectArg, this._arrayArg );



Can invoke:

  • immediately
  • in response to an event
  • in a sequence of execution
  • as a callback response or in a promise
  • at the end of an event loop
  • in any other needed way to invoke a method


class Instructions {
    DoThis( stringArg, numArg, objectArg, arrayArg ) {
        console.log( `${stringArg}, ${numArg}, ${objectArg}, ${arrayArg}` );

A client generates a command, passes it to an invoker that either executes it immediately or delays the command, and then the command acts upon a receiver. The command pattern is very useful when used with companion patterns to create messaging patterns.