SQL Identifier Unquoted identifiers

Help us to keep this website almost Ad Free! It takes only 10 seconds of your time:
> Step 1: Go view our video on YouTube: EF Core Bulk Extensions
> Step 2: And Like the video. BONUS: You can also share it!


Unquoted identifiers can use letters (a-z), digits (0-9), and underscore (_), and must start with a letter.

Depending on SQL implementation, and/or database settings, other characters may be allowed, some even as the first character, e.g.

  • MS SQL: @, $, #, and other Unicode letters (source)
  • MySQL: $ (source)
  • Oracle: $, #, and other letters from database character set (source)
  • PostgreSQL: $, and other Unicode letters (source)

Unquoted identifiers are case-insensitive. How this is handled depends greatly on SQL implementation:

  • MS SQL: Case-preserving, sensitivity defined by database character set, so can be case-sensitive.

  • MySQL: Case-preserving, sensitivity depends on database setting and underlying file system.

  • Oracle: Converted to uppercase, then handled like quoted identifier.

  • PostgreSQL: Converted to lowercase, then handled like quoted identifier.

  • SQLite: Case-preserving; case insensitivity only for ASCII characters.

Got any SQL Question?