In C#, there are two different kinds of equality: reference equality and value equality. Value equality is the commonly understood meaning of equality: it means that two objects contain the same values. For example, two integers with the value of 2 have value equality. Reference equality means that there are not two objects to compare. Instead, there are two object references, both of which refer to the same object.
object a = new object(); object b = a; System.Object.ReferenceEquals(a, b); //returns true
For predefined value types, the equality operator (==) returns true if the values of its operands are equal, false otherwise. For reference types other than string, == returns true if its two operands refer to the same object. For the string type, == compares the values of the strings.
// Numeric equality: True Console.WriteLine((2 + 2) == 4); // Reference equality: different objects, // same boxed value: False. object s = 1; object t = 1; Console.WriteLine(s == t); // Define some strings: string a = "hello"; string b = String.Copy(a); string c = "hello"; // Compare string values of a constant and an instance: True Console.WriteLine(a == b); // Compare string references; // a is a constant but b is an instance: False. Console.WriteLine((object)a == (object)b); // Compare string references, both constants // have the same value, so string interning // points to same reference: True. Console.WriteLine((object)a == (object)c);