Returns a new
deque object initialized left-to-right (using append()) with data from iterable. If iterable is not specified, the new
deque is empty.
Deques are a generalization of stacks and queues (the name is pronounced “deck” and is short for “double-ended queue”). Deques support thread-safe, memory efficient appends and pops from either side of the
deque with approximately the same O(1) performance in either direction.
Though list objects support similar operations, they are optimized for fast fixed-length operations and incur O(n) memory movement costs for pop(0) and insert(0, v) operations which change both the size and position of the underlying data representation.
New in version 2.4.
maxlen is not specified or is
None, deques may grow to an arbitrary length. Otherwise, the
deque is bounded to the specified maximum length. Once a bounded length
deque is full, when new items are added, a corresponding number of items are discarded from the opposite end. Bounded length deques provide functionality similar to the tail filter in Unix. They are also useful for tracking transactions and other pools of data where only the most recent activity is of interest.
Changed in version 2.6: Added maxlen parameter.
>>> from collections import deque >>> d = deque('ghi') # make a new deque with three items >>> for elem in d: # iterate over the deque's elements ... print elem.upper() G H I >>> d.append('j') # add a new entry to the right side >>> d.appendleft('f') # add a new entry to the left side >>> d # show the representation of the deque deque(['f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j']) >>> d.pop() # return and remove the rightmost item 'j' >>> d.popleft() # return and remove the leftmost item 'f' >>> list(d) # list the contents of the deque ['g', 'h', 'i'] >>> d # peek at leftmost item 'g' >>> d[-1] # peek at rightmost item 'i' >>> list(reversed(d)) # list the contents of a deque in reverse ['i', 'h', 'g'] >>> 'h' in d # search the deque True >>> d.extend('jkl') # add multiple elements at once >>> d deque(['g', 'h', 'i', 'j', 'k', 'l']) >>> d.rotate(1) # right rotation >>> d deque(['l', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j', 'k']) >>> d.rotate(-1) # left rotation >>> d deque(['g', 'h', 'i', 'j', 'k', 'l']) >>> deque(reversed(d)) # make a new deque in reverse order deque(['l', 'k', 'j', 'i', 'h', 'g']) >>> d.clear() # empty the deque >>> d.pop() # cannot pop from an empty deque Traceback (most recent call last): File "<pyshell#6>", line 1, in -toplevel- d.pop() IndexError: pop from an empty deque >>> d.extendleft('abc') # extendleft() reverses the input order >>> d deque(['c', 'b', 'a'])