C++ SFINAE (Substitution Failure Is Not An Error) is_detected


Example

To generalize type_trait creation:based on SFINAE there are experimental traits detected_or, detected_t, is_detected.

With template parameters typename Default, template <typename...> Op and typename ... Args:

  • is_detected: alias of std::true_type or std::false_type depending of the validity of Op<Args...>
  • detected_t: alias of Op<Args...> or nonesuch depending of validity of Op<Args...>.
  • detected_or: alias of a struct with value_t which is is_detected, and type which is Op<Args...> or Default depending of validity of Op<Args...>

which can be implemented using std::void_t for SFINAE as following:

C++17
namespace detail {
    template <class Default, class AlwaysVoid,
              template<class...> class Op, class... Args>
    struct detector
    {
        using value_t = std::false_type;
        using type = Default;
    };

    template <class Default, template<class...> class Op, class... Args>
    struct detector<Default, std::void_t<Op<Args...>>, Op, Args...>
    {
        using value_t = std::true_type;
        using type = Op<Args...>;
    };

} // namespace detail

// special type to indicate detection failure
struct nonesuch {
    nonesuch() = delete;
    ~nonesuch() = delete;
    nonesuch(nonesuch const&) = delete;
    void operator=(nonesuch const&) = delete;
};

template <template<class...> class Op, class... Args>
using is_detected =
    typename detail::detector<nonesuch, void, Op, Args...>::value_t;

template <template<class...> class Op, class... Args>
using detected_t = typename detail::detector<nonesuch, void, Op, Args...>::type;

template <class Default, template<class...> class Op, class... Args>
using detected_or = detail::detector<Default, void, Op, Args...>;

Traits to detect presence of method can then be simply implemented:

typename <typename T, typename ...Ts>
using foo_type = decltype(std::declval<T>().foo(std::declval<Ts>()...));

struct C1 {};

struct C2 {
    int foo(char) const;
};

template <typename T>
using has_foo_char = is_detected<foo_type, T, char>;

static_assert(!has_foo_char<C1>::value, "Unexpected");
static_assert(has_foo_char<C2>::value, "Unexpected");

static_assert(std::is_same<int, detected_t<foo_type, C2, char>>::value,
              "Unexpected");

static_assert(std::is_same<void, // Default
                           detected_or<void, foo_type, C1, char>>::value,
              "Unexpected");
static_assert(std::is_same<int, detected_or<void, foo_type, C2, char>>::value,
              "Unexpected");