C++ Preprocessor Predefined macros


Example

Predefined macros are those that the compiler defines (in contrast to those user defines in the source file). Those macros must not be re-defined or undefined by user.

The following macros are predefined by the C++ standard:

  • __LINE__ contains the line number of the line this macro is used on, and can be changed by the #line directive.
  • __FILE__ contains the filename of the file this macro is used in, and can be changed by the #line directive.
  • __DATE__ contains date (in "Mmm dd yyyy" format) of the file compilation, where Mmm is formatted as if obtained by a call to std::asctime().
  • __TIME__ contains time (in "hh:mm:ss" format) of the file compilation.
  • __cplusplus is defined by (conformant) C++ compilers while compiling C++ files. Its value is the standard version the compiler is fully conformant with, i.e. 199711L for C++98 and C++03, 201103L for C++11 and 201402L for C++14 standard.
c++11
  • __STDC_HOSTED__ is defined to 1 if the implementation is hosted, or 0 if it is freestanding.
c++17
  • __STDCPP_DEFAULT_NEW_ALIGNMENT__ contains a size_t literal, which is the alignment used for a call to alignment-unaware operator new.

Additionally, the following macros are allowed to be predefined by implementations, and may or may not be present:

  • __STDC__ has implementation-dependent meaning, and is usually defined only when compiling a file as C, to signify full C standard compliance. (Or never, if the compiler decides not to support this macro.)
c++11
  • __STDC_VERSION__ has implementation-dependent meaning, and its value is usually the C version, similarly to how __cplusplus is the C++ version. (Or is not even defined, if the compiler decides not to support this macro.)
  • __STDC_MB_MIGHT_NEQ_WC__ is defined to 1, if values of the narrow encoding of the basic character set might not be equal to the values of their wide counterparts (e.g. if (uintmax_t)'x' != (uintmax_t)L'x')
  • __STDC_ISO_10646__ is defined if wchar_t is encoded as Unicode, and expands to an integer constant in the form yyyymmL, indicating the latest Unicode revision supported.
  • __STDCPP_STRICT_POINTER_SAFETY__ is defined to 1, if the implementation has strict pointer safety (otherwise it has relaxed pointer safety)
  • __STDCPP_THREADS__ is defined to 1, if the program can have more than one thread of execution (applicable to freestanding implementationhosted implementations can always have more than one thread)

It is also worth mentioning __func__, which is not an macro, but a predefined function-local variable. It contains the name of the function it is used in, as a static character array in an implementation-defined format.

On top of those standard predefined macros, compilers can have their own set of predefined macros. One must refer to the compiler documentation to learn those. E.g.:

Some of the macros are just to query support of some feature:

#ifdef __cplusplus // if compiled by C++ compiler
extern "C"{ // C code has to be decorated
   // C library header declarations here
}
#endif

Others are very useful for debugging:

c++11
bool success = doSomething( /*some arguments*/ );
if( !success ){
    std::cerr << "ERROR: doSomething() failed on line " << __LINE__ - 2
              << " in function " << __func__ << "()"
              << " in file " << __FILE__
              << std::endl;
}

And others for trivial version control:

int main( int argc, char *argv[] ){
    if( argc == 2 && std::string( argv[1] ) == "-v" ){
        std::cout << "Hello World program\n"
                  << "v 1.1\n" // I have to remember to update this manually
                  << "compiled: " << __DATE__ << ' ' << __TIME__ // this updates automagically
                  << std::endl;
    }
    else{
        std::cout << "Hello World!\n";
    }
}