Python Language How to create a delayed queue in RabbitMQ


Example

First we need to set up two basic channels, one for the main queue, and one for the delay queue. In my example at the end, I include a couple of additional flags that are not required, but makes the code more reliable; such as confirm delivery, delivery_mode and durable. You can find more information on these in the RabbitMQ manual.

After we have set up the channels we add a binding to the main channel that we can use to send messages from the delay channel to our main queue.

channel.queue.bind(exchange='amq.direct', routing_key='hello', queue='hello')

Next we need to configure our delay channel to forward messages to the main queue once they have expired.

delay_channel.queue.declare(queue='hello_delay', durable=True, arguments={
    'x-message-ttl': 5000,
    'x-dead-letter-exchange': 'amq.direct',
    'x-dead-letter-routing-key': 'hello'
})
  • x-message-ttl (Message - Time To Live)

    This is normally used to automatically remove old messages in the queue after a specific duration, but by adding two optional arguments we can change this behaviour, and instead have this parameter determine in milliseconds how long messages will stay in the delay queue.

  • x-dead-letter-routing-key

    This variable allows us to transfer the message to a different queue once they have expired, instead of the default behaviour of removing it completely.

  • x-dead-letter-exchange

    This variable determines which Exchange used to transfer the message from hello_delay to hello queue.

Publishing to the delay queue

When we are done setting up all the basic Pika parameters you simply send a message to the delay queue using basic publish.

delay_channel.basic.publish(exchange='',
                            routing_key='hello_delay',
                            body='test',
                            properties={'delivery_mod': 2})

Once you have executed the script you should see the following queues created in your RabbitMQ management module. enter image description here

Example.

from amqpstorm import Connection

connection = Connection('127.0.0.1', 'guest', 'guest')

# Create normal 'Hello World' type channel.
channel = connection.channel()
channel.confirm_deliveries()
channel.queue.declare(queue='hello', durable=True)

# We need to bind this channel to an exchange, that will be used to transfer
# messages from our delay queue.
channel.queue.bind(exchange='amq.direct', routing_key='hello', queue='hello')

# Create our delay channel.
delay_channel = connection.channel()
delay_channel.confirm_deliveries()

# This is where we declare the delay, and routing for our delay channel.
delay_channel.queue.declare(queue='hello_delay', durable=True, arguments={
    'x-message-ttl': 5000, # Delay until the message is transferred in milliseconds.
    'x-dead-letter-exchange': 'amq.direct', # Exchange used to transfer the message from A to B.
    'x-dead-letter-routing-key': 'hello' # Name of the queue we want the message transferred to.
})

delay_channel.basic.publish(exchange='',
                            routing_key='hello_delay',
                            body='test',
                            properties={'delivery_mode': 2})

print("[x] Sent")