Java Language Pitfall: concurrent modification exceptions


This exception occurs when a collection is modified while iterating over it using methods other than those provided by the iterator object. For example, we have a list of hats and we want to remove all those that have ear flaps:

List<IHat> hats = new ArrayList<>();
hats.add(new Ushanka()); // that one has ear flaps
hats.add(new Fedora());
hats.add(new Sombrero());
for (IHat hat : hats) {
    if (hat.hasEarFlaps()) {

If we run this code, ConcurrentModificationException will be raised since the code modifies the collection while iterating it. The same exception may occur if one of the multiple threads working with the same list is trying to modify the collection while others iterate over it. Concurrent modification of collections in multiple threads is a natural thing, but should be treated with usual tools from the concurrent programming toolbox such as synchronization locks, special collections adopted for concurrent modification, modifying the cloned collection from initial etc.