Java Language Javassist Basic


Example

Javassist is a bytecode instrumentation library that allows you to modify bytecode injecting Java code that will be converted to bytecode by Javassist and added to the instrumented class/method at runtime.

Lets write the first transformer that actually take an hypothetical class "com.my.to.be.instrumented.MyClass" and add to the instructions of each method a log call.

import java.lang.instrument.ClassFileTransformer;
import java.lang.instrument.IllegalClassFormatException;
import java.security.ProtectionDomain;
import javassist.ClassPool;
import javassist.CtClass;
import javassist.CtMethod;
 
public class DynamicTransformer implements ClassFileTransformer {
 
    public byte[] transform(ClassLoader loader, String className, Class classBeingRedefined,
        ProtectionDomain protectionDomain, byte[] classfileBuffer) throws IllegalClassFormatException {
 
        byte[] byteCode = classfileBuffer;
 
        // into the transformer will arrive every class loaded so we filter 
        // to match only what we need
        if (className.equals("com/my/to/be/instrumented/MyClass")) {
 
            try {
                // retrive default Javassist class pool
                ClassPool cp = ClassPool.getDefault();
                // get from the class pool our class with this qualified name
                CtClass cc = cp.get("com.my.to.be.instrumented.MyClass");
                // get all the methods of the retrieved class
                CtMethod[] methods = cc.getDeclaredMethods()
                for(CtMethod meth : methods) {
                    // The instrumentation code to be returned and injected
                    final StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
                    String name = meth.getName();
                    // just print into the buffer a log for example
                    buffer.append("System.out.println(\"Method " + name + " executed\" );");
                    meth.insertBefore(buffer.toString())
                }
                // create the byteclode of the class
                byteCode = cc.toBytecode();
                // remove the CtClass from the ClassPool
                cc.detach();
            } catch (Exception ex) {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
 
        return byteCode;
    }
}

Now in order to use this transformer (so that our JVM will call the method transform on each class at load time) we need to add this instrumentor this with an agent:

import java.lang.instrument.Instrumentation;
 
public class EasyAgent {
 
    public static void premain(String agentArgs, Instrumentation inst) {
         
        // registers the transformer
        inst.addTransformer(new DynamicTransformer());
    }
}

Last step to start our first instrumentor experiment is to actually register this agent class to the JVM machine execution. The easiest way to actually do it is to register it with an option into the shell command:

java -javaagent:myAgent.jar MyJavaApplication

As we can see the agent/transformer project is added as a jar to the execution of any application named MyJavaApplication that is supposed to contain a class named "com.my.to.be.instrumented.MyClass" to actually execute our injected code.