Java Language Java Compiler - 'javac' Compiling for a different version of Java


The Java programming language (and its runtime) has undergone numerous changes since its release since its initial public release. These changes include:

  • Changes in the Java programming language syntax and semantics
  • Changes in the APIs provided by the Java standard class libraries.
  • Changes in the Java (bytecode) instruction set and classfile format.

With very few exceptions (for example the enum keyword, changes to some "internal" classes, etc), these changes are backwards compatible.

  • A Java program that was compiled using an older version of the Java toolchain will run on a newer version Java platform without recompilation.
  • A Java program that was written in an older version of Java will compile successfully with a new Java compiler.

Compiling old Java with a newer compiler

If you need to (re-)compile older Java code on a newer Java platform to run on the newer platform, you generally don't need to give any special compilation flags. In a few cases (e.g. if you had used enum as an identifier) you could use the -source option to disable the new syntax. For example, given the following class:

public class OldSyntax {
    private static int enum;  // invalid in Java 5 or later

the following is required to compile the class using a Java 5 compiler (or later):

$ javac -source 1.4

Compiling for an older execution platform

If you need to compile Java to run on an older Java platforms, the simplest approach is to install a JDK for the oldest version you need to support, and use that JDK's compiler in your builds.

You can also compile with a newer Java compiler, but there are complicated. First of all, there some important preconditions that must be satisfied:

  • The code you are compiling must not use Java language constructs that were not available in the version of Java that you are targeting.
  • The code must not depend on standard Java classes, fields, methods and so on that were not available in the older platforms.
  • Third party libraries that the code depends must also be built for the older platform and available at compile-time and run-time.

Given the preconditions are met, you can recompile code for an older platform using the -target option. For example,

$ javac -target 1.4

will compile the above class to produce bytecodes that are compatible with Java 1.4 or later JVM. (In fact, the -source option implies a compatible -target, so javac -source 1.4 ... would have the same effect. The relationship between -source and -target is described in the Oracle documentation.)

Having said that, if you simply use -target or -source, you will still be compiling against the standard class libraries provided by the compiler's JDK. If you are not careful, you can end up with classes with the correct bytecode version, but with dependencies on APIs that are not available. The solution is to use the -bootclasspath option. For example:

$ javac -target 1.4 --bootclasspath path/to/java1.4/rt.jar

will compile against an alternative set of runtime libraries. If the class being compiled has (accidental) dependencies on newer libraries, this will give you compilation errors.