Java Language Polymorphism Polymorphism and different types of overriding


Example

From java tutorial

The dictionary definition of polymorphism refers to a principle in biology in which an organism or species can have many different forms or stages. This principle can also be applied to object-oriented programming and languages like the Java language. Subclasses of a class can define their own unique behaviors and yet share some of the same functionality of the parent class.

Have a look at this example to understand different types of overriding.

  1. Base class provides no implementation and sub-class has to override complete method - (abstract)
  2. Base class provides default implementation and sub-class can change the behaviour
  3. Sub-class adds extension to base class implementation by calling super.methodName() as first statement
  4. Base class defines structure of the algorithm (Template method) and sub-class will override a part of algorithm

code snippet:

import java.util.HashMap;

abstract class Game implements Runnable{

    protected boolean runGame = true;
    protected Player player1 = null;
    protected Player player2 = null;
    protected Player currentPlayer = null;
    
    public Game(){
        player1 = new Player("Player 1");
        player2 = new Player("Player 2");
        currentPlayer = player1;
        initializeGame();
    }

    /* Type 1: Let subclass define own implementation. Base class defines abstract method to force
        sub-classes to define implementation    
    */
    
    protected abstract void initializeGame();
    
    /* Type 2: Sub-class can change the behaviour. If not, base class behaviour is applicable */
    protected void logTimeBetweenMoves(Player player){
        System.out.println("Base class: Move Duration: player.PlayerActTime - player.MoveShownTime");
    }
    
    /* Type 3: Base class provides implementation. Sub-class can enhance base class implementation by calling
        super.methodName() in first line of the child class method and specific implementation later */
    protected void logGameStatistics(){
        System.out.println("Base class: logGameStatistics:");
    }
    /* Type 4: Template method: Structure of base class can't be changed but sub-class can some part of behaviour */
    protected void runGame() throws Exception{
        System.out.println("Base class: Defining the flow for Game:");    
        while (runGame) {
            /*
            1. Set current player
            2. Get Player Move
            */
            validatePlayerMove(currentPlayer);    
            logTimeBetweenMoves(currentPlayer);
            Thread.sleep(500);
            setNextPlayer();
        }
        logGameStatistics();
    }
    /* sub-part of the template method, which define child class behaviour */
    protected abstract void validatePlayerMove(Player p);
    
    protected void setRunGame(boolean status){
        this.runGame = status;
    }
    public void setCurrentPlayer(Player p){
        this.currentPlayer = p;
    }
    public void setNextPlayer(){
        if (currentPlayer == player1) {
            currentPlayer = player2;
        }else{
            currentPlayer = player1;
        }
    }
    public void run(){
        try{
            runGame();
        }catch(Exception err){
            err.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

class Player{
    String name;
    Player(String name){
        this.name = name;
    }
    public String getName(){
        return name;
    }
}

/* Concrete Game implementation  */
class Chess extends Game{
    public Chess(){
        super();
    }
    public void initializeGame(){
        System.out.println("Child class: Initialized Chess game");
    }
    protected void validatePlayerMove(Player p){
        System.out.println("Child class: Validate Chess move:" + p.getName());
    }
    protected void logGameStatistics(){
        super.logGameStatistics();
        System.out.println("Child class: Add Chess specific logGameStatistics:");
    }
}
class TicTacToe extends Game{
    public TicTacToe(){
        super();
    }
    public void initializeGame(){
        System.out.println("Child class: Initialized TicTacToe game");
    }
    protected void validatePlayerMove(Player p){
        System.out.println("Child class: Validate TicTacToe move:" + p.getName());
    }
}

public class Polymorphism{
    public static void main(String args[]){
        try{
        
            Game game = new Chess();
            Thread t1 = new Thread(game);
            t1.start();
            Thread.sleep(1000);
            game.setRunGame(false);
            Thread.sleep(1000);
                        
            game = new TicTacToe();
            Thread t2 = new Thread(game);
            t2.start();
            Thread.sleep(1000);
            game.setRunGame(false);
        
        }catch(Exception err){
            err.printStackTrace();
        }        
    }
}

output:

Child class: Initialized Chess game
Base class: Defining the flow for Game:
Child class: Validate Chess move:Player 1
Base class: Move Duration: player.PlayerActTime - player.MoveShownTime
Child class: Validate Chess move:Player 2
Base class: Move Duration: player.PlayerActTime - player.MoveShownTime
Base class: logGameStatistics:
Child class: Add Chess specific logGameStatistics:

Child class: Initialized TicTacToe game
Base class: Defining the flow for Game:
Child class: Validate TicTacToe move:Player 1
Base class: Move Duration: player.PlayerActTime - player.MoveShownTime
Child class: Validate TicTacToe move:Player 2
Base class: Move Duration: player.PlayerActTime - player.MoveShownTime
Base class: logGameStatistics: