Java Language Oracle Official Code Standard Modifiers


class ExampleClass {
    // Access modifiers first (don't do for instance "static public")
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Hello World");

interface ExampleInterface {
    // Avoid 'public' and 'abstract' since they are implicit
    void sayHello();
  • Modifiers should go in the following order

    • Access modifier (public / private / protected)
    • abstract
    • static
    • final
    • transient
    • volatile
    • default
    • synchronized
    • native
    • strictfp
  • Modifiers should not be written out when they are implicit. For example, interface methods should neither be declared public nor abstract, and nested enums and interfaces should not be declared static.

  • Method parameters and local variables should not be declared final unless it improves readability or documents an actual design decision.

  • Fields should be declared final unless there is a compelling reason to make them mutable.